Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 1277–1287 | Cite as

Exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets and gold nanoparticles based electrochemical sensor for determination of levodopa

  • Tânia Regina Silva
  • Alessandra Smaniotto
  • Iolanda Cruz Vieira
Original Paper


This paper describes a rapid, accurate, and sensitive method for the determination of levodopa in a pharmaceutical sample using a glassy carbon electrode modified with a hybrid nanocomposite constituted of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets dispersed in a suspension of gold nanoparticles in carboxymethylcelullose (AuNP-CMC-xGnP/GCE). The nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and zeta potential. Electrochemical characterization of the proposed sensor by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the nanocomposite used for the electrode modification facilitated electron transfer. Using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) under optimized conditions (0.50% (m/v) of AuNP-CMC-xGnP, 0.1 mol L−1 sulfuric acid, frequency 30 Hz, pulse amplitude 50 mV, and scan increment 6.0 mV), the calibration curve showed a linear range for levodopa from 5 to 50 μmol L−1, with a limit of detection of 0.5 μmol L−1. The sensor demonstrated good repeatability and electrode-to-electrode repeatability, with relative standard deviations of 2 and 4%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify levodopa in a pharmaceutical sample by SWV, showing good accuracy. Recoveries of 98 to 107% demonstrated that the method is suitable for practical applications. Therefore, the proposed sensor represents a useful tool for rapid and accurate determination of levodopa.


Sensor Exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets Gold nanoparticles Carboxymethylcellulose Levodopa 



The authors acknowledge the financial support from FAPESC/CNPq (Process 2807/2012 – PRONEM), CNPq (Process 442609/2014-0). This research was supported by the Central Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Federal University of Santa Catarina (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil).

Supplementary material

10008_2017_3677_MOESM1_ESM.docx (115 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 115 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rio Grande do Sul (IFRS), Campus FelizFelizBrazil

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