European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 281–288 | Cite as

Increased risk of ADHD in families with ASD

  • Mathilde Septier
  • Hugo Peyre
  • Fréderique Amsellem
  • Anita Beggiato
  • Anna Maruani
  • Marion Poumeyreau
  • Anouck Amestoy
  • Isabelle Scheid
  • Alexandru Gaman
  • Federico Bolognani
  • Garry Honey
  • Céline Bouquet
  • Myriam Ly-Le Moal
  • Manuel Bouvard
  • Marion Leboyer
  • Thomas Bourgeron
  • Richard DelormeEmail author
Original Contribution


Attention Deficit and Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are frequent comorbid neurodevelopmental conditions and the overlap between both disorders remains to be delineated. A more complete understanding of the shared genetic and environmental factors is needed. Using a family-based method, we evaluated the risk of ADHD in a group of relatives with an ASD proband (ASD−) and a group of relatives with an ASD and ADHD proband (ASD+). We enrolled 1245 individuals in the study: 499 probands, their 746 first-degree relatives and 140 controls. We used a multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) model, in which the dependent variable was the ADHD diagnosis in the relatives and the independent variable the ASD+ or ASD− in probands. We adjusted for sociodemographic factors (age, sex, IQ) and for the nature of the familial relationship with the affected proband (parent or sibling). Among the probands, there were 287 ASD− and 212 ASD+ individuals. ADHD was more frequent in relatives (19%) than in the control group (7%) (p = 0.001). The risk of ADHD was higher in the ASD+ relatives group than in the ASD− relatives group (GEE model OR 1.58 [95% CI 1.04–2.38], p = 0.032). This result was found in parents (OR 1.96 [95% CI  1.14–3.36], but not in siblings (OR 1.28 [95% CI 0.84–1.94], p = 0.434). Our study provides a representative estimate of the family distribution of ADHD in relatives of ASD probands but supports the modest effect of shared genetic and environmental factors between both disorders.


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Autism spectrum disorder Familial aggregation Siblings 



The authors would like to thank the participating personnel of the centers, the subjects and their families who participated in this study. The Institut Pasteur, INSERM, Fondation FondaMental, APHP, DHU Protect, Labex BioPsy and Fondation Orange supported this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

This work was supported via collaboration with the Roche Institute for Research and Translational Medicine. F.B, G.H, C.B & M.L are employees of F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd who supported part of the study. The other authors did not receive any fees from Roche for this study. The remaining authors have no competing interests to declare.

Supplementary material

787_2018_1206_MOESM1_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 12 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mathilde Septier
    • 1
    • 2
    • 10
  • Hugo Peyre
    • 1
    • 3
    • 10
  • Fréderique Amsellem
    • 1
    • 4
  • Anita Beggiato
    • 1
    • 4
  • Anna Maruani
    • 1
    • 4
  • Marion Poumeyreau
    • 1
    • 4
  • Anouck Amestoy
    • 5
  • Isabelle Scheid
    • 1
    • 6
  • Alexandru Gaman
    • 1
    • 6
  • Federico Bolognani
    • 7
  • Garry Honey
    • 7
  • Céline Bouquet
    • 7
  • Myriam Ly-Le Moal
    • 11
  • Manuel Bouvard
    • 5
  • Marion Leboyer
    • 6
    • 8
    • 9
  • Thomas Bourgeron
    • 4
    • 10
  • Richard Delorme
    • 1
    • 4
    • 6
    • 10
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryRobert Debré Hospital, APHPParisFrance
  2. 2.Centre de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, INSERM U894 Team 1ParisFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique (ENS, EHESS, CNRS), Ecole Normale SupérieurePSL Research UniversityParisFrance
  4. 4.Human Genetics and Cognitive FunctionsInstitut PasteurParisFrance
  5. 5.Autism Expert CentreCharles Perrens HospitalBordeauxFrance
  6. 6.Fondation FondaMentalFrench National Science FoundationCréteilFrance
  7. 7.Neuroscience, Ophthalmology, and Rare Diseases (NORD), Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Roche Innovation Center BaselF. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.BaselSwitzerland
  8. 8.Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U955, Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomédicale, Psychiatrie TranslationnelleCréteilFrance
  9. 9.Department of Adult PsychiatryHenri Mondor and Albert Chenevier HospitalCréteilFrance
  10. 10.Paris 7 Denis Diderot UniversityParisFrance
  11. 11.Institut RocheBoulogne-BillancourtFrance

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