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Bleaching effectiveness and cytotoxicity of new experimental formulation of niobium-based bleaching gel



The development of new bleaching agents with minimum concentration of hydrogen peroxide (HP), without adverse effects, and with bleaching effectiveness, has great clinical relevance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bleaching efficacy and cytotoxicity of a new niobium-based bleaching gel, compared to already available HP-based gels.

Materials and methods

For the bleaching efficacy analysis, 40 bovine incisors were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the established bleaching protocol: control, untreated; 35HP, 35% HP bleaching gel; 6HP, 6% HP bleaching gel; NbHP, niobium gel associated with 3% HP gel. The color variation was measured in a spectrophotometer and the values of ΔL, Δa, Δb, and ΔE obtained. For the cell viability assay by MTT, MC3T3 cells were exposed to bleaching gel extracts (1:500, 1:250, 1:125 dilutions; immediately and 24 h). Statistical tests were performed (P < 0.05).


The color alteration for all bleaching gels was significant compared to control (P < 0.05), but the NbHP gel showed a significant ΔE than other gels, with expressive color alteration at 14 days (P < 0.05). The 35HP showed high cytotoxicity regarding control and the most groups in all periods and extracts analyzed (P < 0.05), while the NbHP showed greater cell viability than control in the immediate period, dilution of the 1:500 and superior to 6HP in the most extracts at 24 h.


The new experimental niobium-based gel has bleaching efficacy similar to that of gels with a high concentration of HP, and it has high cytocompatibility.

Clinical relevance

The use of this new generation of niobium-based whitening gel associated with a low concentration of hydrogen peroxide represents the possibility of a tooth whitening with lower dentin sensitivity.

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Availability of data and material

We have all the survey data available.



Hydrogen peroxide


Hydrogen peroxide 35%


Niobium associated with hydrogen peroxide


Hydrogen peroxide 6%

ΔE :

Total color difference

Δa :

Difference in red and green

Δb :

Difference in yellow and blue

ΔL :

Difference in lighter and darker


Dulbecco Modified Eagle’s Medium


Pre-osteoblast cells


Fetal bovine serum


3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide


One-way analysis of variance


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To the cell culture laboratory of the Faculty of Dentistry of UFMG for supplying the MC3T3 cells used in the work and to Odontotech for financing the inputs to carry out the research.

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Authors and Affiliations



Conceptualization: Morgan, Moreira, Oliveira, Belchior; acquisition of data: Caneschi, Benetti, Ferreira; analysis and interpretation of data: Caneschi, Benetti, Ferreira, Morgan; methodology: Morgan, Moreira, Caneschi; project administration: Morgan, Moreira, Oliveira, Belchior; resources: Morgan, Moreira, Oliveira, Belchior; supervision: Morgan, Moreira; writing (original draft): Caneschi, Benetti, Ferreira; writing (review/editing): Morgan, Moreira, Oliveira, Belchior. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Allyson Nogueira Moreira.

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Caneschi, C.d., Benetti, F., de Oliveira, L.C.A. et al. Bleaching effectiveness and cytotoxicity of new experimental formulation of niobium-based bleaching gel. Clin Oral Invest (2023).

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  • Bleaching gel
  • Niobium
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Bleaching effectiveness