Skip to main content

Antimicrobial surface processing of polymethyl methacrylate denture base resin using a novel silica-based coating technology



This study investigated the surface characteristics of denture base resin coatings prepared using a novel silica-based film containing hinokitiol and assessed the effect of this coating on Candida albicans adhesion and growth.


Silica-based coating solutions (control solution; CS) and CS containing hinokitiol (CS-H) were prepared. C. albicans biofilm formed on denture base specimens coated with each solution and these uncoated specimens (control) were analyzed using colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, fluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Specimen surfaces were analyzed by measuring the surface roughness and wettability and with Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Stability of coated specimens was assessed via immersion in water for 1 week for each group (control-1w, CS-1w, and CS-H-1w) followed by CFU assay, measurement of surface roughness and wettability, and FT-IR.


CS-H and CS-H-1w contained significantly lower CFUs than those present in the control and control-1w, which was also confirmed via SEM. Fluorescence microscopy from the CS-H group identified several dead cells. The values of surface roughness from coating groups were significantly less than those from the control and control-1w. The surface wettability from all coating groups exhibited high hydrophobicity. FT-IR analyses demonstrated that specimens were successfully coated, and 1H NMR analyses showed that hinokitiol was incorporated inside CS-H.


A silica-based denture coating that incorporates hinokitiol inhibits C. albicans growth on denture.

Clinical relevance

We provide a novel antifungal denture coating which can be helpful for the treatment of denture stomatitis.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6.


  1. Nikawa H, Hamada T, Yamamoto T (1998) Denture plaque–past and recent concerns. J Dent 26:299–304.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Salerno C, Pascale M, Contaldo M, Esposito V, Busciolano M, Milillo L et al (2011) Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 16:e139–e143.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Ramage G, Tomsett K, Wickes BL, López-Ribot JL, Redding SW (2004) Denture stomatitis: a role for Candida biofilms. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Rad Endod 98:53–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Sudbery PE (2011) Growth of Candida albicans hyphae. Nat Rev Microbiol 9:737–748.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Jackson S, Coulthwaite L, Loewy Z, Scallan A, Verran J (2014) Biofilm development by blastospores and hyphae of Candida albicans on abraded denture acrylic resin surfaces. J Prosthet Dent 112:988–993.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Mayahara M, Kataoka R, Arimoto T, Tamaki Y, Yamaguchi N, Watanabe Y et al (2014) Effects of surface roughness and dimorphism on the adhesion of Candida albicans to the surface of resins: scanning electron microscope analyses of mode and number of adhesions. J Investig Clin Dent 5:307–312.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Gendreau L, Loewy ZG (2011) Epidemiology and etiology of denture stomatitis. J Prosthodont 20:251–260.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Walczak K, Schierz G, Basche S, Petto C, Boening K, Wieckiewicz M (2020) Antifungal and surface properties of chitosan-salts modified PMMA denture base material. Molecules 25.

  9. Hirasawa M, Tsutsumi-Arai C, Takakusaki K, Oya T, Fueki K, Wakabayashi N (2018) Superhydrophilic co-polymer coatings on denture surfaces reduce Candida albicans adhesion-An in vitro study. Arch Oral Biol 87:143–150.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. AlBin-Ameer MA, Alsrheed MY, Aldukhi IA, Matin A, Khan SQ, Abualsaud R, Gad MM (2020) Effect of protective coating on surface properties and Candida albicans adhesion to denture base materials. J Prosthodont 29(1):80–86.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Tsutsumi C, Takakuda K, Wakabayashi N (2016) Reduction of Candida biofilm adhesion by incorporation of prereacted glass ionomer filler in denture base resin. J Dent 44:37–43.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Faustini M, Nicole L, Ruiz-Hitzky E, Sanchez C (2018) History of organic–inorganic hybrid materials: prehistory, art, science, and advanced applications. Adv Funct Mater 28:1704158.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Lu Y, Yin Y, Li Z-Y, Xia Y (2002) Synthesis and self-assembly of Au@SiO2 core−shell colloids. Nano Lett 2:785–788.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Iwamiya Y, Kawai M, Nishio-Hamane D, Shibayama M, Hiroi Z (2021) Modern alchemy: making “Plastics” from paper. Ind Eng Chem Res 60:355–360.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Syahmina A, Usuki T (2020) Ionic liquid-assisted extraction of essential oils from thujopsis dolobrata (Hiba). ACS Omega 5:29618–29622.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Domon H, Hiyoshi T, Maekawa T, Yonezawa D, Tamura H, Kawabata S et al (2019) Antibacterial activity of hinokitiol against both antibiotic-resistant and -susceptible pathogenic bacteria that predominate in the oral cavity and upper airways. Microbiol Immunol 63:213–222.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Kim DJ, Lee MW, Choi JS, Lee SG, Park JY, Kim SW (2017) Inhibitory activity of hinokitiol against biofilm formation in fluconazole-resistant Candida species. PloS One 12:e0171244.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. Komaki N, Watanabe T, Ogasawara A, Sato N, Mikami T, Matsumoto T (2008) Antifungal mechanism of hinokitiol against Candida albicans. Biol Pharm Bull 31:735–737.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Magori N, Fujita T, Kumamoto E (2018) Hinokitiol inhibits compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve. Eur J Pharmacol 819:254–260.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Samaranayake YH, Cheung BP, Parahitiyawa N, Seneviratne CJ, Yau JY, Yeung KW et al (2009) Synergistic activity of lysozyme and antifungal agents against Candida albicans biofilms on denture acrylic surfaces. Arch Oral Biol 54(2):115–26.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Vallittu PK, Miettinen V, Alakuijala P (1995) Residual monomer content and its release into water from denture base materials. Dent Mater 11(6):338–42.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Jin X, Zhang M, Lu J, Duan X, Chen J, Liu Y et al (2021) Hinokitiol chelates intracellular iron to retard fungal growth by disturbing mitochondrial respiration. J Adv Res.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Gad Mohammed M, Abualsaud Reem, Khan Soban Q (2022) Hydrophobicity of denture base resins: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 12(2):139–159.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Susewind S, Lang R, Hahnel S (2015) Biofilm formation and Candida albicans morphology on the surface of denture base materials. Mycoses 58:719–727.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Teughels W, Van Assche N, Sliepen I, Quirynen M (2006) Effect of material characteristics and/or surface topography on biofilm development. Clin Oral Implants Res 17:68–81.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Mitik-Dineva N, Wang J, Mocanasu RC, Stoddart PR, Crawford RJ, Ivanova EP (2008) Impact of nano-topography on bacterial attachment. Biotechnol J 3:536–544.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Yu P, Wang C, Zhou J, Jiang L, Xue J, Li W (2016) Influence of surface properties on adhesion forces and attachment of streptococcus mutans to zirconia In Vitro. BioMed Res Int 2016:8901253.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. Nagay BE, Bitencourt SB, Commar BC, da Silva EVF, Dos Santos DM, Rangel EC et al (2020) Antimicrobial and protective effects of non-thermal plasma treatments on the performance of a resinous liner. Arch Oral Biol 117:104822.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Cheng Q, Cao D, Liu X, Zheng Y, Shi Z, Zhu S et al (2019) Superhydrophobic coatings with self-cleaning and antibacterial adhesion properties for denture base. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 98:148–156.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Yoshijima Y, Murakami K, Kayama S, Liu D, Hirota K, Ichikawa T et al (2010) Effect of substrate surface hydrophobicity on the adherence of yeast and hyphal Candida. Mycoses 53:221–226.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Fujiwara N, Murakami K, Yoshida K, Sakurai S, Kudo Y, Ozaki K et al (2020) Suppressive effects of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)-polymer on the adherence of Candida species and MRSA to acrylic denture resin. Heliyon 6:e04211.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Hatsuno K, Mukohyama H, Horiuchi S, Iwasaki Y, Yamamoto N, Akiyoshi K et al (2006) Poly(MPC-co-BMA) Coating reduces the adhesion of Candida albicans to poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces. Prosthodontic Res Pract 5:21–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Lazarin AA, Zamperini CA, Vergani CE, Wady AF, Giampaolo ET, Machado AL (2014) Candida albicans adherence to an acrylic resin modified by experimental photopolymerised coatings: an in vitro study. Gerodontology 31:25–33.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Shetty P, Chhapdia L, Verma P, Sahu A, Kushwaha NS, Chaturvedi R, Manna S (2017) Comparative analysis of the water sorption and cytotoxicity of two different denture base systems: an in vitro study. 18(9):771–774.

  35. Polat TN, Karacaer O, Tezvergil A, Lassila LV, Vallittu PK (2003) Water sorption, solubility and dimensional changes of denture base polymers reinforced with short glass fibers. J Biomater Appl 17:321–335.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Peyvandi A, Abideen SU, Huang Y, Lee I, Soroushian P, Lu J (2014) Surface treatment of polymer microfibrillar structures for improved surface wettability and adhesion. Appl Surf Sci 289:586–591.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Terpiłowski K (2017) Apparent surface free energy of polymer/paper composite material treated by air plasma. Int J Polym Sci 2017:9023197.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Wang C-F, Ejeta DD, Wu J-Y, Kuo S-W, Lin C-H, Lai J-Y (2020) Tuning the wettability and surface free energy of poly(vinylphenol)thin films by modulating hydrogen-bonding interactions. Polymers 12:523.

    Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. Lang NP, Bartold PM (2018) Periodontal health. J Clin Periodontol 45(Suppl 20):S9–S16.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


FT-IR spectra measurements and direct deuteration reactions were conducted at the User Experiment Preparation Lab III (CROSS). 1H NMR spectroscopy experiments were conducted at the Deuteration Laboratory in J-PARC MLF.


This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI, grant numbers 20K18649 and 20K18742.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



Chiaki Tsutsumi-Arai wrote the main manuscript text and prepared Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4. Kazuhiro Akutsu-Suyama prepared Figs. 5 and 6. All authors reviewed the manuscript.

Conceptualization: Chiaki Tsutsumi-Arai, Zenji Hiroi, Mitsuhiro Shibayama, Kazuhito Satomura; methodology: Chiaki Tsutsumi-Arai, Kazuhiro Akutsu-Suyama; formal analysis and investigation: Chiaki Tsutsumi-Arai, Chika Terada-Ito, Kazuhiro Akutsu-Suyama; writing—original draft preparation: Chiaki Tsutsumi-Arai; writing—review and editing: Kazuhito Satomura, Mitsuhiro Shibayama; funding acquisition: Chiaki Tsutsumi-Arai, Chika Terada-Ito; resources: Yoko Iwamiya; supervision: Kazuhito Satomura.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chiaki Tsutsumi-Arai.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval

This study has no need for prior approval by an ethics committee.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher's note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tsutsumi-Arai, C., Akutsu-Suyama, K., Iwamiya, Y. et al. Antimicrobial surface processing of polymethyl methacrylate denture base resin using a novel silica-based coating technology. Clin Oral Invest (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:


  • Silica-resin coating
  • Hinokitiol
  • C. albicans
  • Denture
  • Denture stomatitis