Relationship between dry mouth and hypertension

Abstract

Objectives

Salivary dysfunction, such as reduced salivary flow and an altered salivary composition, is caused by several diseases, medical conditions, and medications. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between hypertension and morphological changes in the submandibular glands.

Materials and methods

An epidemiological study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between hypertension and dry mouth. The effects of hypertension on morphological changes and the intima thickness of arteries in the submandibular glands were histopathologically investigated.

Results

Among 1933 subjects in the epidemiological study, 155 (8.0%) had dry mouth. A multivariate analysis revealed that dry mouth correlated with age (p < 0.001), sex (p < 0.001), and hypertension (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the size of the submandibular glands between patients with or without hypertension. The average area of acinar cells was smaller in patients with than in those without hypertension (0.366 ± 0.153 vs. 0.465 ± 0.178, p < 0.05). The arteriosclerotic index was significantly higher in patients with than in those without hypertension (0.304 ± 0.034 vs 0.475 ± 0.053, p < 0.05).

Conclusions

Hypertension may contribute to the degeneration of the submandibular glands by decreasing the number of acinar cells and promoting fatty infiltration and stenosis of the arteries.

Clinical relevance

There may be a correlation between hypertension and the degeneration of the submandibular glands by decreasing the number of acinar cells and promoting fatty infiltration and stenosis of the arteries.

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Abbreviations

MetS:

Metabolic syndrome

HDL-C:

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol

HbA1c:

Hemoglobin A1c

eGFR:

Estimated glomerular filtration rate

MRI:

Magnetic resonance imaging

AI:

Arteriosclerosis index

OR:

Odds ratio

CI:

Confidence interval

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Acknowledgements

We wish to thank Medical English Service (https://www.med-english.com/) for English proofreading of this manuscript.

Funding

This study was funded by the 8020 health promotion.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Conception and design of the study: Kurita H

Analysis and interpretation of data: Kawamoto M, Yamada S, and Kurita H

Collection and assembly of data: Sakurai A, Gibo T, Kajihara R, Hakoyama Y, Otagiri H, Hashidume M, Kubo K, Aizawa H, Tanaka H, Kondo E, Sakai H, Kaneko T, and Uehara T

Drafting of the article: Kawamoto M and Yamada S

Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: Yamada S

Final approval of the article: Kurita H

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shin-ichi Yamada.

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Ethical approval

The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Shinshu University School of Medicine. (No. #4003 and #4264).

Informed consent

Formal consent was not required for this type of study.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Cite this article

Kawamoto, M., Yamada, Si., Gibo, T. et al. Relationship between dry mouth and hypertension. Clin Oral Invest (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-021-03829-4

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Keywords

  • Dry mouth
  • Submandibular glands
  • Hypertension
  • Arteriosclerosis
  • Xerostomia
  • Intima