The present study aimed to investigate the changes in the enamel bond strengths of universal adhesives in the early phase of specimen creation and evaluate the effect of double-layer application on enamel bond effectiveness using different etching modes.
Four universal adhesives, namely Clearfil Universal Bond Quick, G-Premio Bond, Scotchbond Universal, and Tokuyama Universal Bond, were used. Clearfil SE Bond two-step self-etch adhesive system was used as a comparison. Fifteen specimens per group were used for determining the shear bond strength (SBS) to bovine enamel in the etch-and-rinse or self-etch mode. The adhesive was applied to specimens in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions (single-layer application), or the adhesive was applied twice (double-layer application). The bonded specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 5 min or 1, 6, 12, or 24 h before SBS testing. The flexural properties of the resin composite Clearfil AP-X were measured for the same storage periods.
All universal adhesives exhibited increased SBS values with prolonged storage periods regardless of the application technique or etching mode used. Double-layer application was associated with higher SBS values than single-layer application for most universal adhesives over the same storage period.
Phosphoric acid pre-etching and double-layer application of universal adhesives resulted in increased enamel bond strength in the early phase of specimen bonding.
Care should be taken when using universal adhesives in the self-etch mode for enamel bonding because the enamel adhesion is sensitive to the duration after filling.
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This work was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Nos. 19K10158 and 17K11716, from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. This project was also supported in part by the Sato Fund, Uemura Yasuo・Haruko found, and by a grant from the Dental Research Center of the Nihon University School of Dentistry, Japan.
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Hirokane, E., Takamizawa, T., Kasahara, Y. et al. Effect of double-layer application on the early enamel bond strength of universal adhesives. Clin Oral Invest 25, 907–921 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-020-03379-1
- Enamel bond strength
- Double application technique
- Universal adhesive
- Early bonding performance