Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 1157–1165 | Cite as

Bacterial penetration into filled root canals exposed to different pressures and to the oral environment—in vivo analysis

  • Ana Maria Hecke Alves
  • Maria Helena Pozzobon
  • Eduardo Antunes Bortoluzzi
  • Cleonice da Silveira Teixeira
  • Beatriz Dulcinéia Mendes Souza
  • Lucas da Fonseca Roberti Garcia
  • Wilson Tadeu Felippe
Original Article



The study aims to correlate the depth of bacterial penetration into filled root canals with the time of exposure to the oral environment and different pressures.

Materials and methods

One-hundred and twenty-two root canals of male Beagle dog teeth were prepared and filled. The root canals were distributed into three groups, according to the pressure applied: (A) no pressure, (B) 30 kPa, and (C) 60 kPa. Then, the root canals were exposed to the oral environment, establishing sub-groups considering the time intervals of exposure: (1) 45 days and (2) 120 days (n = 17). Sub-groups had positive and negative controls (n = 5). The animals were sacrificed, and the specimens were prepared for histological analysis.


There was no significant difference in the bacterial penetration among groups A, B, and C at 45 days (P = 0.903) and 120 days (P = 0.211). No statistically significant difference was found (P = 0.608) between the exposure time intervals. Most of the specimens from experimental groups exposed for 120 days presented moderate inflammatory infiltrate.


Pressures of 30 and 60 kPa did not affect sealing ability of root canal filling. The time of exposure did not influence bacterial penetration, which was limited to the first 4 mm of the root canals exposed for 120 days.

Clinical relevance

This animal study demonstrated that disinfection of the first millimeters of root canals could be considered before retreatment of their entire length. However, clinical studies in humans should be conducted before validation of this protocol.


Endodontics Sealing methodology Bacterial penetration Periapical inflammation 



The authors would like to thank the staff of the Technical, Operatory, and Experimental Surgical Laboratory (Federal University of Santa Catarina), Dr. Jorge Bins-Ely, Dr. Newton Macuco Capella, and Luiz Henrique Prazeres. The authors also thank Marco Antonio de Lorenzo, Dr. Elena Riet Correa Rivero, Sergio Batista de Andrade, and Jackeline Natividade for their general support.


No funding was reported for this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study was conducted in compliance with all the applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Maria Hecke Alves
    • 1
  • Maria Helena Pozzobon
    • 1
  • Eduardo Antunes Bortoluzzi
    • 1
  • Cleonice da Silveira Teixeira
    • 1
  • Beatriz Dulcinéia Mendes Souza
    • 1
  • Lucas da Fonseca Roberti Garcia
    • 1
  • Wilson Tadeu Felippe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dentistry-Endodontics Division, Health Sciences CenterFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil

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