Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 1113–1122 | Cite as

Bond durability of universal adhesive to bovine enamel using self-etch mode

  • Soshi Suzuki
  • Toshiki Takamizawa
  • Arisa Imai
  • Akimasa Tsujimoto
  • Keiichi Sai
  • Masayuki Takimoto
  • Wayne W. Barkmeier
  • Mark A. Latta
  • Masashi Miyazaki
Original Article



The purpose of this study was to examine the enamel bond durability of universal adhesives in the self-etch mode under 2-year water storage and thermal cycling conditions.

Materials and methods

Three commercially available universal adhesives and a gold standard two-step self-etch adhesive were used. Ten specimens of bovine enamel were prepared per test group, and shear bond strength (SBS) was measured to determine the bonding durability after thermal cycling (TC) or long-term water storage (WS). The bonded specimens were divided into three groups: (1) specimens subjected to TC, where the bonded specimens were stored in 37 °C distilled water for 24 h before being subjected to 3000, 10,000, 20,000 or 30,000 TC; (2) specimens stored in 37 °C distilled water for 3 months, 6 months, 1 year or 2 year; and (3) specimens stored in 37 °C distilled water for 24 h, serving as a baseline.


The two-step self-etch adhesive showed significantly higher SBS than the universal adhesives tested, regardless of the type of degradation method. All universal adhesives showed no significant enamel SBS reductions in TC and WS, when compared to baseline and the other degradation conditions.


Compared to the bond strengths obtained with the two-step self-etch adhesive, significantly lower bond strengths were obtained with universal adhesives. However, the enamel bond durability of universal adhesives was relatively stable under both degradation conditions tested.

Clinical relevance

The present data indicate that the enamel bond durability of universal adhesives in the self-etch mode might be sufficient for clinical use.


Universal adhesive Bonding durability Thermal cycling Two-year water storage 


Funding information

This work was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 16K11565, 17K11716 and 17K17141, from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. This project was also supported in part by the Sato Fund and by a grant from the Dental Research Center of the Nihon University School of Dentistry, Japan.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study does not contain any studies with human participants and subjects or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soshi Suzuki
    • 1
  • Toshiki Takamizawa
    • 1
  • Arisa Imai
    • 1
  • Akimasa Tsujimoto
    • 1
  • Keiichi Sai
    • 1
  • Masayuki Takimoto
    • 1
  • Wayne W. Barkmeier
    • 2
  • Mark A. Latta
    • 2
  • Masashi Miyazaki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Operative DentistryNihon University School of DentistryTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of General DentistryCreighton University School of DentistryOmahaUSA

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