JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry

, Volume 23, Issue 7, pp 1009–1022 | Cite as

Amphi-enterobactin commonly produced among Vibrio campbellii and Vibrio harveyi strains can be taken up by a novel outer membrane protein FapA that also can transport canonical Fe(III)-enterobactin

  • Hiroaki Naka
  • Zachary L. Reitz
  • Aneta L. Jelowicki
  • Alison Butler
  • Margo G. HaygoodEmail author
Original Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Alison Butler: Papers in Celebration of Her 2018 ACS Alfred Bader Award in Bioorganic or Bioinorganic Chemistry


Vibrio campbellii BAA-1116 (formerly Vibrio harveyi) is a model organism for quorum sensing study and produces the siderophores anguibactin and amphi-enterobactin. This study examined the mechanisms and specificity of siderophore uptake in V. campbellii and V. harveyi, and surveyed the diversity of siderophore production in V. campbellii and V. harveyi strains. The amphi-enterobactin gene cluster of BAA-1116 harbors a gene, named fapA, that is a homologue of genes encoding Fe(III)-siderophore-specific outer membrane receptors. Another strain, V. campbellii HY01, a strain pathogenic to shrimp, also carries this cluster including fapA. Our siderophore bioassay results using HY01-derived indicator strains show that the FapA protein localized in the outer membrane fraction of V. campbellii HY01 is essential for the uptake of Fe(III)-amphi-enterobactin as well as exogenous siderophores, including enterobactin from E. coli, but not vanchrobactin from V. anguillarum RV22 while Fe(III)-amphi-enterobactin can be utilized by V. anguillarum. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry as well as bioassay revealed that various V. campbellii and V. harveyi strains produce a suite of amphi-enterobactins with various fatty acid appendages, including several novel amphi-enterobactins, and these amphi-enterobactins can be taken up by V. campbellii HY01 via FapA, indicating that amphi-enterobactin production is a common phenotype among V. campbellii and V. harveyi, whereas our previous work, confirmed herein, showed that anguibactin is only produced by V. campbellii strains. These results along with the additional finding that a 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid biosynthesis gene, aebA, located in the amphi-enterobactin gene cluster, is essential for both anguibactin and amphi-enterobactin biosynthesis, suggest the possibility that amphi-enterobactin is a native siderophore of V. campbellii and V. harveyi, while the anguibactin system has been acquired by V. campbellii during evolution.


Vibrio campbellii Vibrio harveyi Amphi-enterobactin Anguibactin Fe(III)-siderophore receptor 



The research reported here made use of the shared facilities of the UCSB MRSEC (NSF DMR 1720256). We would like to thank the late Professor Jorge Crosa for his valuable suggestions. This work was supported by NSF CHE-171076 (AB).

Supplementary material

775_2018_1601_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (3.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 3311 kb)


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Copyright information

© SBIC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroaki Naka
    • 1
  • Zachary L. Reitz
    • 2
  • Aneta L. Jelowicki
    • 2
  • Alison Butler
    • 2
  • Margo G. Haygood
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medicinal Chemistry, L.S. Skaggs Pharmacy InstituteUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA

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