Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increases cognitive impairment in elderly people
- 3 Downloads
It has been reported that many elderly people have low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and that serum 25(OH)D levels may have a relationship with cognitive function. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and cognitive function in a Japanese population. This cross-sectional study was performed as a part of the Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST). The PROST study evaluated cognitive state and serum vitamin D level from June 2011 to November 2013 for 740 patients (431 men and 309 women). The Mini-Mental State Examination-Japanese version (MMSE-J) and serum 25(OH)D level measurements were used as assessment tools. Cognitive impairment was defined using MMSE-J ≤ 23 as a cutoff. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) for low MMSE-J scores. The average subject age was 68.1 years, the average MMSE- J score was 25.9, and the average 25(OH)D level was 24.6 ng/mL. Significant ORs for cognitive impairment were observed for both high age and low serum 25(OH)D. The adjusted OR for the lowest versus highest serum 25(OH)D quartiles was 2.70 (95% confidence interval 1.38–5.28, P = 0.0110). Low serum 25(OH)D levels were independently associated with a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment.
KeywordsCognitive impairment 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Cross-sectional study Mini-Mental State Examination-Japanese Version (MMSE-J)
The authors gratefully acknowledge Ms. Chieko Nishizawa and all the staff at Sado General Hospital for their support in the collection of patient data.
The work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for the Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Conflict of interest
All authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
- 7.Niigata Prefectural Government: Niigata Prefecture Statistics Box (in Japanese). http://www.pref.niigata.lg.jp/tokei/
- 8.Kitamura Watanabe Y, Nakamura K, Sanpei K, Wakasugi M, Yokoseki A, Onodera O, Ikeuchi T, Kuwano R, Momotsu T, Narita I, Endo N (2016) Modifiable factors associated with cognitive impairment in 1,143 Japanese outpatients: the Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST). Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra 6:341–349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.Watanabe Y, Kitamura K, Nakamura K, Sanpei K, Wakasugi M, Yokoseki A, Onodera O, Ikeuchi T, Kuwano R, Momotsu T, Narita I, Endo N (2016) Elevated C-reactive protein is associated with cognitive decline in outpatients of a general hospital: the Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST). Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra 19:10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Watanabe Y, Kitamura K, Nakamura K, Sanpei K, Wakasugi M, Yokoseki A, Kabasawa K, Onodera O, Ikeuchi T, Kuwano R, Momotsu T, Narita I, Endo N (2017) Association between dialysis treatment and cognitive decline: a study from the Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST), Japan. Geriatr Gerontol Int 17:1584–1587PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 11.Sugishita M, Henmi I, Takeuchi T (2016) Seishinjotai tanjikankensa-nihonban (MMSE-J) no datousei to sinraisei ni kansuru saikentou. Jpn J Cogn Neurosci 18:168–183 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
- 12.Okazaki R, Ozono K, Fukumoto S, Inoue D, Yamauchi M, Minagawa M, Michigami T, Takeuchi Y, Matsumoto T, Sugimoto T (2017) Assessment criteria for vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in Japan—proposal by an expert panel supported by Research Program of Intractable Diseases, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and The Japan Endocrine Society. Endocr J 30:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.O’Lone E, Connors M, Masson P, Wu S, Kelly PJ, Gillespie D, Parker D, Whiteley W, Giovanni Strippoli GF, Palmer SC, Craig JC, Webster (2016) Cognition in people with end-stage kidney disease treated with hemodialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis 67:925–935CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20.Karakis I, Pase MP, Beiser A, Booth SL, Jacques PF, Rogers G, DeCarli C, Vasan RS, Wang TJ, Himali JJ, Annweiler C, Seshadri S (2016) Association of serum vitamin D with the risk of incident dementia and subclinical indices of brain aging: the Framingham Heart Study. J Alzheimers Dis 51:451–461CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar