Archives of Women's Mental Health

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 291–295 | Cite as

Prevalence and predictors of positive screening for postpartum depression in minority parturients in the South Bronx

  • Samfee Doe
  • Stephen LoBue
  • Abraham Hamaoui
  • Shadi Rezai
  • Cassandra E. Henderson
  • Ray Mercado
Original Article


It is reported that the rates of perinatal depressive disorders are high in ethnic minority groups from non-English speaking countries. However, very few studies have compared the prevalence of positive screening for postpartum depression (PPD) in minority communities living in an inner city. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence and the predictors of positive screening for postpartum depression in minority parturients in the South Bronx. The study is a chart review of 314 minority parturients, Black or Hispanic, screened for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) tool. The overall prevalence of a positive EPDS screen among Black and Hispanic women was similar, 24.04 and 18.75%, respectively. The Black immigrant cohort had comparable positive screens with 23.81 as African Americans. Hispanic women born in the USA had the least prevalence of positive screens, 7.14%, and those who moved from the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico had a prevalence of 17.24% of positive screens. The women who immigrated from Mexico, Central America, or South America had the highest prevalence of positive screens for PPD, 32.26%. As to the socioeconomic status (SES), there was a significant increase of 27.04 vs. 13.95% (P < 0.019) in positive screens for PPD for the unemployed mothers. Overall, Black and Hispanic parturients had similar rates of positive screens for PPD. Among the Hispanic women, immigrants had higher rates of positive screens, with those from Mexico, Central, and South America as the highest. The hospital experience did not affect the rates of positive screens. Neither did the SES with one exception; those unemployed had the higher rates of positive screens.


Black parturients Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) EPDS Hispanic parturients Hospital experience Socioeconomic status Unemployment 



The authors would like to thank Ms. Judith Wilkinson, the Medical Librarian at Lincoln Medical, and the Mental Health Center Science Library for providing the reference articles

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Adouard F, Glangeaud-Freudenthal NM, Golse B (2005) Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in a sample of women with high-risk pregnancies in France. Arch Womens Ment Health 8(2):89–95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvarado R, Jadresic E, Guajardo V, Rojas G (2015) First validation of a Spanish-translated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for use in pregnant women. A Chilean study. Arch Womens Ment Health 18(4):607–612CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarado-Esquivel C, Sifuentes-Alvarez A, Salas-Martinez C (2014) The use of the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale in a population of teenager pregnant women in Mexico: a validation study. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. doi: 10.2174/1745017901410010129.eCollection2014 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker L, Oswalt K (2008) Screening for postpartum depression in a rural community. Community Ment Health J 44(3):171–180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Callister L, Beckstrand RL, Corbett C (2011) Postpartum depression and help seeking behaviors in immigrant Hispanic women. JOGNN: J Obst Gynecol Neo Nurs 40(4):440–449. doi: 10.1111/j.15526909.2011.01254.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R (1987) Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Br J Psychiatry Jun 150:782–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gress-Smith JL, Luecken LJ, Lemery-Chalfant K, Howe R (2012) Postpartum depression prevalence and impact on infant health, weight, and sleep in low-income and ethnic minority women and infants. Matern Child Health J 16(4):887–893CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hanington L, Ramchandani P, Stein A (2010) Parental depression and child temperament: assessing child to parent effects in a longitudinal population study. Infant Behav Dev 33(1):88–95. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.11.004 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Husain N, Cruickshank K, Husain M, Khan S, Tomenson B, Rahman A (2012) Social stress and depression during pregnancy and in the postnatal period in British Pakistani mothers: a cohort study. J Affect Disord 140(3):268–276CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Kabir ZN, Nasreen HE, Edhborg M (2014) Intimate partner violence and its association with maternal depressive symptoms 6–8 months after childbirth in rural Bangladesh. Glob Health Action 7:24725CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Khalifa DS, Glavin K, Bjertness E, Lien L (2015) Postnatal depression among Sudanese women: prevalence and validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 3 months postpartum. Int J Women’s Health 7:677–684. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S81401 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Le HN, Perry DF, Ortiz G (2010) The Postpartum Depression Screening Scale—Spanish version: examining the psychometric properties and prevalence of risk for postpartum depression. J Immigr Minor Health 12:249–258CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Letourneau NL, Dennis C, Benzies K, Duffett-Leger L, Stewart M, Tryphonopoulos PD, Este D, Watson W (2012) Postpartum depression is a family affair: addressing the impact on mothers, fathers, and children. Iss Mental Health Nurs 33(7):445–457. doi: 10.3109/01612840.2012.673054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu CH, Tronick E (2014) Prevalence and predictors of maternal postpartum depressed mood and anhedonia by race and ethnicity. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 23(2):201–209. doi: 10.1017/S2045796013000413 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lucero N, Beckstrand R, Callister LC, Birkhead A (2012) The prevalence of postpartum depression in Hispanic immigrant women. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 24(12):726–734. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2012.00744.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Onozawa K, Kumar RC, Adams D, Dore C, Glover V (2003) High EPDS scores in women from ethnic minorities living in London. Arch Womens Met Health 6(2):51–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Patel V, DeSouza N, Rodrigues M (2003) Postnatal depression and infant growth and development in low income countries: a cohort study from Goa, India. BMJ 88(1):34Google Scholar
  18. Paulson JF, Bazemore SD (2010) Prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers and its association with maternal depression a meta-analysis. JAMA: J Am Med Assoc 303(19):1961–1969. doi: 10.1001/jama.2010.605 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rahman A, Iqbal Z, Bunn J, Lovel H, Harrington R (2004) Impact of maternal depression on infant nutritional status and illness: a cohort study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61(9):946CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Shellman LM (2012) Postpartum depression in immigrant Hispanic women: a comparative community sample. All Theses and Dissertations. Paper 3244. Brigham Young UniversityGoogle Scholar
  21. Spinelli MG, Goetz RR (2011) Symptoms of depression in a minority population of women from an urban obstetrics and gynecology clinic. Gend Med 8(5):320–324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Templeton L, Velleman R, Persaud A, Milner P (2003) The experiences of postnatal depression in women from black and minority ethnic communities in Wiltshire, UK. Ethnic Health 8(3):207–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Trabold N, Waldrop DP, Nochajski TH, Cerulli C (2013) An exploratory analysis of intimate partner violence and postpartum depression in an impoverished urban population. Soc Work Health Care 52(4):332–350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Yonkers KA, Ramin SM, Rush AJ, Navarrete CA, Carmody T, March D, Heartwell SF, Leveno KJ (2001) Onset and persistence of postpartum depression in an inner-city maternal health clinic system. Am J Psychiatry 158(11):1856–1863CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samfee Doe
    • 1
  • Stephen LoBue
    • 1
  • Abraham Hamaoui
    • 2
    • 3
  • Shadi Rezai
    • 2
  • Cassandra E. Henderson
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ray Mercado
    • 2
  1. 1.School of MedicineSt. George’s UniversityTrue BlueGrenada
  2. 2.From the Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyLincoln Medical and Mental Health CenterBronxUSA
  3. 3.Lincoln Medical and Mental Health CenterBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations