Anti-obesity effect of taurine through inhibition of adipogenesis in white fat tissue but not in brown fat tissue in a high-fat diet-induced obese mouse model
- 574 Downloads
This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of long-term taurine supplementation in a mild obese ICR mouse model and to study the mechanism by which taurine induces weight loss. Three groups of male ICR mice were fed a normal chow diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD supplemented with 2% taurine in drinking water for 28 weeks. Body weight was measured every week. Metabolic, behavioral, and physiological monitoring were carried out using PhenoMaster at 28 weeks. Interscapular brown fat (BAT), inguinal white fat tissue (WAT), and quadriceps muscle were analyzed and compared to assess the change of gene expression related to adipogenesis. Taurine supplementation showed the trend of anti-obesity effect in ICR mice fed an HFD for 28 weeks. HFD-fed mice did not show significant difference of oxygen consumption (VO2), energy expenditure (EE), respiratory exchange rate (RER), and locomotive activity compared with those of normal chow diet fed mice. The expression of adipogenesis-related genes such as PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, C/EBP-β, and AP2 increased in BAT and WAT, but not in muscle tissue. Taurine supplementation showed the downregulation of these genes in WAT but not in BAT or muscle. Consistently, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) and adipocyte-specific genes such as adiponectin, leptin, and IL-6 was regulated in a similar pattern by taurine supplementation. Long-term taurine supplementation causes weight loss, most likely by inhibiting adipogenesis in WAT. TauT expression may be involved in the expression of various genes regulated by taurine supplementation.
KeywordsTaurine Taurine transporter Adipogenesis White adipose tissue Brown adipose tissue
The authors thank Dr. Kang Jong-Sun at Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine for critical reading and comments.
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (Grant number 2017R1D1AB03031409). This research was partly supported by the Korea Mouse Phenotyping Project (2013M3A9D5072550) of the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning through the National Research Foundation.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
All animal protocols were approved by the Committee on Animals of Kyung Hee University Hospital at GANGDONG (KHNMC AP 2016-009). There are no human participants.
Human tissues and sera were never used in this study. No informed consent is required.
- Batista TM, Ribeiro RA, da Silva PM, Camargo RL, Lollo PC, Boschero AC, Carneiro EM (2013) Taurine supplementation improves liver glucose control in normal protein and malnourished mice fed a high-fat diet. Mol Nutr Food Res 57(3):423–434. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201200345 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Borck PC, Vettorazzi JF, Branco RCS, Batista TM, Santos-Silva JC, Nakanishi VY, Boschero AC, Ribeiro RA, Carneiro EM (2018) Taurine supplementation induces long-term beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in ob/ob mice. Amino Acids 50(6):765–774. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-018-2553-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kim KS, Oh DH, Kim JY, Lee BG, You JS, Chang KJ, Chung HJ, Yoo MC, Yang HI, Kang JH, Hwang YC, Ahn KJ, Chung HY, Jeong IK (2012) Taurine ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia by reducing insulin resistance and leptin level in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term diabetes. Exp Mol Med 44(11):665–673. https://doi.org/10.3858/emm.2012.44.11.075 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kim KS, Ji HI, Chung H, Kim C, Lee SH, Lee YA, Yang HI, Yoo MC, Hong SJ (2013) Taurine chloramine modulates the expression of adipokines through inhibition of the STAT-3 signaling pathway in differentiated human adipocytes. Amino Acids 45(6):1415–1422. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-013-1612-z PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lin S, Hirai S, Yamaguchi Y, Goto T, Takahashi N, Tani F, Mutoh C, Sakurai T, Murakami S, Yu R, Kawada T (2013) Taurine improves obesity-induced inflammatory responses and modulates the unbalanced phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages. Mol Nutr Food Res 57(12):2155–2165. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201300150 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Murakami S, Fujita M, Nakamura M, Sakono M, Nishizono S, Sato M, Imaizumi K, Mori M, Fukuda N (2016) Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 43(3):372–378. https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.12534 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ribeiro RA, Santos-Silva JC, Vettorazzi JF, Cotrim BB, Mobiolli DD, Boschero AC, Carneiro EM (2012) Taurine supplementation prevents morpho-physiological alterations in high-fat diet mice pancreatic beta-cells. Amino Acids 43(4):1791–1801. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-012-1263-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sagara M, Murakami S, Mizushima S, Liu L, Mori M, Ikeda K, Nara Y, Yamori Y (2015) Taurine in 24-h urine samples is inversely related to cardiovascular risks of middle aged subjects in 50 populations of the world. Adv Exp Med Biol 803:623–636. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15126-7_50 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ueki I, Stipanuk MH (2009) 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rat adipose tissue have a high capacity for taurine synthesis by the cysteine dioxygenase/cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase and cysteamine dioxygenase pathways. J Nutr 139(2):207–214. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.108.099085 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yamori Y, Liu L, Ikeda K, Miura A, Mizushima S, Miki T, Nara Y, Disease WH-C, Alimentary Comprarison Study G (2001) Distribution of twenty-four hour urinary taurine excretion and association with ischemic heart disease mortality in 24 populations of 16 countries: results from the WHO-CARDIAC study. Hypertens Res 24(4):453–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yamori Y, Taguchi T, Mori H, Mori M (2010) Low cardiovascular risks in the middle aged males and females excreting greater 24-hour urinary taurine and magnesium in 41 WHO-CARDIAC study populations in the world. J Biomed Sci 17(Suppl 1):S21. https://doi.org/10.1186/1423-0127-17-S1-S21 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar