Amino Acids

, Volume 51, Issue 2, pp 193–204 | Cite as

Rehydration during exercise prevents the increase of homocysteine concentrations

  • Beatriz Maroto-SánchezEmail author
  • Olga Lopez-Torres
  • Jara Valtueña
  • Pedro J. Benito
  • Gonzalo Palacios
  • Ángel Enrique Díaz-Martínez
  • Domingo González-Lamuño
  • Angelo Zinellu
  • Marcela González-Gross
  • Ciriaco CarruEmail author
Original Article


This study aimed to assess the effect of rehydration during and after acute aerobic submaximal exercise on total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations and related parameters in physically active adult males. Twenty trained males (29.4 ± 7.9 years old) completed four exercise tests: two without rehydration during exercise (NH1 and NH2), one with rehydration during exercise using water (H1) and one with rehydration during exercise using an isotonic sports drink (H2). After finishing the exercise tests, subjects followed a rehydration protocol for 2 h. Serum tHcy, vitamin B12, folate, creatine and creatinine were analysed before, after and at 2, 6 and 24 h after exercise. Data were analysed with and without correcting for haemoconcentration to assess the changes in tHcy related. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677TT genotype was also analysed. THcy (uncorrected by haemoconcentration) increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05) in the NH1 and NH2 tests [mean increase ± SD: 1.55 ± 0.33 (15.18%) and 1.76 ± 0.25 (17.69%) µmol/L, respectively], while no significant differences were found in the H1 and H2 tests [mean increase: 0.65 (6.29%) and 0.90 (8.69%) μmol/L, respectively]. The increase was partly due to haemoconcentration and partly due to the metabolism underlying acute exercise. THcy concentrations recovered to baseline after 24 h in all tests. In conclusion, adequate rehydration during acute aerobic exercise using either water or a sports drink maintains tHcy concentrations at baseline and for up to 2 h after exercise in physically active male adults and prevents further increases when compared to no rehydration.


Homocysteine Hydration Vitamins Metabolism 



Authors would like to thank Rosa María Torres, Teresa Amigo, Javier Butragueño for laboratory work, Dr. Mercedes Galindo, Dr. Javier Calderón and Dr. Javier Rojo for the medical supervision of the study and Laura Barrios for advice in the statistical analysis of the data.


The study has been financed with research funds of the ImFINE research group from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. Spain.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beatriz Maroto-Sánchez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Olga Lopez-Torres
    • 1
  • Jara Valtueña
    • 1
  • Pedro J. Benito
    • 2
  • Gonzalo Palacios
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ángel Enrique Díaz-Martínez
    • 4
  • Domingo González-Lamuño
    • 5
  • Angelo Zinellu
    • 6
  • Marcela González-Gross
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ciriaco Carru
    • 6
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.ImFine Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance. Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences (INEF)Universidad Politécnica de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.LFE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance. Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences (INEF)Universidad Politécnica de MadridMadridSpain
  3. 3.Institute of Health Carlos III, CIBERobn CB 12/03/30038MadridSpain
  4. 4.AEPSAD. High Sports CouncilMadridSpain
  5. 5.Pediatric DivisionHospital universitario Marqués de Valdecilla-Universidad de Cantabria and Research Institute Valdecilla (IDIVAL)SantanderSpain
  6. 6.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of SassariSassariItaly
  7. 7.Quality Control UnitHospital University of Sassari (AOU)SassariItaly

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