Amino Acids

, Volume 50, Issue 1, pp 149–161 | Cite as

Long photoperiod affects the maize transition from vegetative to reproductive stages: a proteomic comparison between photoperiod-sensitive inbred line and its recurrent parent

  • Lei Tian
  • Shunxi Wang
  • Xiaoheng Song
  • Jun Zhang
  • Ping Liu
  • Zan Chen
  • Yanhui Chen
  • Liuji Wu
Original Article


Maize (Zea mays L.) is a typical short-day plant that is produced as an important food product and industrial material. The photoperiod is one of the most important evolutionary mechanisms enabling the adaptation of plant developmental phases to changes in climate conditions. There are differences in the photoperiod sensitivity of maize inbred lines from tropical to temperate regions. In this study, to identify the maize proteins responsive to a long photoperiod (LP), the photoperiod-insensitive inbred line HZ4 and its near-isogenic line H496, which is sensitive to LP conditions, were analyzed under long-day conditions using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation. We identified 5259 proteins in maize leaves exposed to the LP condition between the vegetative and reproductive stages. These proteins included 579 and 576 differentially accumulated proteins in H496 and HZ4 leaves, respectively. The differentially accumulated proteins (e.g., membrane, defense, and energy- and ribosome-related proteins) exhibited the opposite trends in HZ4 and H496 plants during the transition from the vegetative stage to the reproductive stage. These results suggest that the photoperiod-associated fragment in H496 plants considerably influences various proteins to respond to the photoperiod sensitivity. Overall, our data provide new insights into the effects of long-day treatments on the maize proteome, and may be useful for the development of new germplasm.


Proteomic analysis Maize leaves iTRAQ Long photoperiod Near-isogenic line Developmental processes 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 31101158), the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, no. 2011CB111500), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (no. 20100470993).

Author contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: YC and LW. Performed the experiments: LT, LW, XS, JZ, SW, PL, and ZC. Analyzed the data: LW, SW, and XS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: YC and SW. Wrote the manuscript: LT, LW, and YC.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

726_2017_2501_MOESM1_ESM.tif (100 kb)
Venn diagram of differentially accumulated proteins. (A) Proteins differentially accumulated between H496 and HZ4 plants from the three-leaf stage to the six-leaf stage. (B) Proteins differentially accumulated between the leaves and shoot apical meristems. (TIFF 99 kb)
726_2017_2501_MOESM2_ESM.tif (161 kb)
Protein accumulation pattern differences between HZ4 and H496 plants from the three-leaf stage to the six-leaf stage. (A) Venn diagram of differentially accumulated proteins identified in HZ4 and H496 shoot apical meristems (SAMs) from the three-leaf stage to the six-leaf stage. (B) Number of differentially accumulated proteins identified in HZ4 and H496 SAMs from the three-leaf stage to the six-leaf stage. (C) Number of proteins common to the HZ4 and H496 SAMs. (TIFF 160 kb)
726_2017_2501_MOESM3_ESM.tif (1 mb)
Dynamics of specific biological process proteins differentially accumulated between HZ4 and H496 plants. (A–D) Accumulation level of proteins identified in line HZ4 related to defense (A), transport (B), plant development (C), and cell development (D). (E–H) Accumulation level of proteins identified in line H496 involved in defense (E), transport (F), plant development (G), and cell development (H). (TIFF 1053 kb)
726_2017_2501_MOESM4_ESM.tif (1.5 mb)
Differences between HZ4 and H496 plants regarding the dynamic change of proteins involved in metabolic processes. (A and B) Proteins specific to HZ4 (A) or H496 (B) plants. (C) Proteins common to HZ4 and H496 plants from the three-leaf stage to the six-leaf stage. (TIFF 1517 kb)
726_2017_2501_MOESM5_ESM.xlsx (564 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (XLSX 563 kb)
726_2017_2501_MOESM6_ESM.xlsx (2.1 mb)
Supplementary material 6 (XLSX 2107 kb)
726_2017_2501_MOESM7_ESM.xlsx (72 kb)
Supplementary material 7 (XLSX 71 kb)
726_2017_2501_MOESM8_ESM.xlsx (73 kb)
Supplementary material 8 (XLSX 72 kb)
726_2017_2501_MOESM9_ESM.xlsx (75 kb)
Supplementary material 9 (XLSX 74 kb)
726_2017_2501_MOESM10_ESM.xlsx (9 kb)
Supplementary material 10 (XLSX 9 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lei Tian
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shunxi Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaoheng Song
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jun Zhang
    • 3
  • Ping Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zan Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yanhui Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Liuji Wu
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Henan Agricultural University and Synergetic Innovation Center of Henan Grain CropsZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Physiological Ecology and Genetic Improvement of Food Crops in Henan ProvinceZhengzhouChina
  3. 3.Food Crops Research InstituteHenan Academy of Agricultural ScienceZhengzhouChina

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