Long photoperiod affects the maize transition from vegetative to reproductive stages: a proteomic comparison between photoperiod-sensitive inbred line and its recurrent parent
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a typical short-day plant that is produced as an important food product and industrial material. The photoperiod is one of the most important evolutionary mechanisms enabling the adaptation of plant developmental phases to changes in climate conditions. There are differences in the photoperiod sensitivity of maize inbred lines from tropical to temperate regions. In this study, to identify the maize proteins responsive to a long photoperiod (LP), the photoperiod-insensitive inbred line HZ4 and its near-isogenic line H496, which is sensitive to LP conditions, were analyzed under long-day conditions using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation. We identified 5259 proteins in maize leaves exposed to the LP condition between the vegetative and reproductive stages. These proteins included 579 and 576 differentially accumulated proteins in H496 and HZ4 leaves, respectively. The differentially accumulated proteins (e.g., membrane, defense, and energy- and ribosome-related proteins) exhibited the opposite trends in HZ4 and H496 plants during the transition from the vegetative stage to the reproductive stage. These results suggest that the photoperiod-associated fragment in H496 plants considerably influences various proteins to respond to the photoperiod sensitivity. Overall, our data provide new insights into the effects of long-day treatments on the maize proteome, and may be useful for the development of new germplasm.
KeywordsProteomic analysis Maize leaves iTRAQ Long photoperiod Near-isogenic line Developmental processes
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 31101158), the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, no. 2011CB111500), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (no. 20100470993).
Conceived and designed the experiments: YC and LW. Performed the experiments: LT, LW, XS, JZ, SW, PL, and ZC. Analyzed the data: LW, SW, and XS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: YC and SW. Wrote the manuscript: LT, LW, and YC.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Hung HY, Shannon LM, Tian F, Bradbury PJ, Chen C, Flint-Garcia SA, McMullen MD, Ware D, Buckler ES, Doebley JF (2012) ZmCCT and the genetic basis of day-length adaptation underlying the postdomestication spread of maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(28):E1913–E1921PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nakamichi N, Kusano M, Fukushima A, Kita M, Ito S, Yamashino T, Saito K, Sakakibara H, Mizuno T (2009) Transcript profiling of an Arabidopsis PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR arrhythmic triple mutant reveals a role for the circadian clock in cold stress response. Plant Cell Physiol 50(3):447–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thompson BE, Basham C, Hammond R, Ding Q, Kakrana A, Lee TF, Simon SA, Meeley R, Meyers BC, Hake S (2014) The dicer-like1 homolog fuzzy tassel is required for the regulation of meristem determinacy in the inflorescence and vegetative growth in maize. Plant Cell 26(12):4702–4717PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar