Amino Acids

, Volume 49, Issue 7, pp 1177–1192 | Cite as

Comparative proteomic analysis provides insight into 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid biosynthesis in honey bee workers

  • Xiao-Hui YangEmail author
  • Shi-Fa Yang
  • Rui-Ming Wang
Original Article


10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) is the major compound produced from the mandibular glands (MGs) of honey bee workers. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanisms of 10-HDA biosynthesis. In our study, based on investigating the 10-HDA secretion pattern and the morphological characteristics of MGs from honey bee workers of different ages, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in the MGs of workers with different 10-HDA production. In total, 59 up-regulated protein species representing 45 unique proteins were identified in high 10-HDA-producing workers by 2-DE–MALDI–TOF/TOF MS. These proteins were involved in carbohydrate/energy metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, protein metabolism and folding, antioxidation, cytoskeleton, development and cell signaling. Proteins related to fatty acid metabolism, including fatty acid synthase and β-oxidation enzymes, are potentially crucial proteins involved in 10-HDA biosynthesis pathway. And RNA interference (RNAi) results demonstrated that knockdown of electron transfer flavoprotein subunit beta (ETF-β), one of the protein related to fatty acid metabolism, decreased 10-HDA production of worker bees, suggesting that ETF-β was necessary for 10-HDA biosynthesis. This study reveals the characteristics of MGs of worker bees at different developmental stages and proteins associated with 10-HDA biosynthesis, which provides the first insight into the molecular mechanism of 10-HDA biosynthesis.


Honey bee 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid Biosynthesis Proteomics RNAi 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 31201281 and 31171727) and the Distinguished Middle-Aged and Young Scientist Encourage and Reward Foundation of Shandong Province (No. BS2013SW029). We also thank Shanghai Applied Protein Technology Co. Ltd. for their technology support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

726_2017_2418_MOESM1_ESM.tif (1.9 mb)
Supplementary material 1 Fig. S1 Chromatogram of 10-HDA measurements by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). a 10-HDA standard, b 10-HDA and the internal standard, c sample from the MGs of worker bees (TIFF 1958 kb)
726_2017_2418_MOESM2_ESM.doc (30 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 30 kb)
726_2017_2418_MOESM3_ESM.doc (68 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOC 68 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Shandong Microbial EngineeringQilu University of TechnologyJinanChina
  2. 2.Shandong Academy of Agricultural ScienceJinanChina

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