Determination of the safety of leucine supplementation in healthy elderly men
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Leucine, a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), has been shown to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and thus has been proposed to prevent age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia). Therefore, leucine supplementation may have potential benefits in elderly populations to preserve muscle mass. The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for leucine intake in young men has recently been determined to be 500 mg kg−1 day−1, and increases in blood ammonia concentrations were seen at intake levels above 500 mg kg−1 day−1; the UL for leucine in elderly is unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the safety of leucine supplementation in healthy elderly men. Six healthy elderly men (72.2 ± 3.5 years) received graded stepwise increases in leucine intakes ranging from 50 to 750 mg kg−1 day−1, on eight separate study days. Plasma and urinary biochemical variables, including blood ammonia, and an oral primed-continuous protocol of L-1-13C-Leucine was performed. Blood ammonia concentrations above normal values (35 µmol/L) were observed at leucine intakes >550 mg kg−1 day−1. Leucine oxidation measured as a F13CO2 (rate of label tracer oxidation) increased with increasing leucine intakes and started to plateau after 450 mg kg−1 day−1. Two-phased linear regression analysis of the F13CO2 data revealed a breakpoint of 431 mg kg−1 day−1 (R 2 = 0.73), suggesting that the upper limit to oxidize leucine was reached at that point. Taking the data together the upper limit for leucine intake in healthy elderly could be set similar to young men at 500 mg kg−1 day−1 or ~35 g/day for an individual weighing 70 kg.
KeywordsLeucine Upper limit Oxidation Elderly Ammonia
This study was funded by the International Council of Amino Acid Science (ICAAS).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest to declare.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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