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Amino Acids

, Volume 47, Issue 9, pp 1729–1740 | Cite as

Possible sources and functions of l-homoarginine in the brain: review of the literature and own findings

  • Hans-Gert BernsteinEmail author
  • Kristin Jäger
  • Henrik Dobrowolny
  • Johann Steiner
  • Gerburg Keilhoff
  • Bernhard Bogerts
  • Gregor Laube
Original Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Homoarginine, Arginine and Relatives

Abstract

l-Homoarginine is a cationic amino acid derivative, which is structurally related to l-arginine and lysine. Several lines of evidence point to nervous tissue as an important target of homoarginine action. In the mammalian brain homoarginine can be detected in noticeable quantities, but its origin is currently poorly explored. In part I of this review we try to show that both uptake and transport into brain (carried out by cationic amino acid transporters) and local synthesis in the brain (carried out by the homoarginine-synthesizing enzymes l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and ornithine transcarbamylse) might contribute to homoarginine brain content. We then give a brief overview about the multiple effects of homoarginine on the healthy brain and show that both homoarginine excess and deficiency are potentially harmful to the central nervous system. In part II, we shortly report about own experiments with regard to the cellular localization of cationic amino acid transporters, as well the enzymes l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and ornithine transcarbamylse, in human and rat brains.

Keywords

l-Homoarginine Brain Transport Synthesis Functions Brain diseases 

Abbreviations

AGAT

l-Arginineglycine amidinotransferase

CAT

Cationic amino acid transporter

CNS

Central nervous system

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

CVO

Circumventricular organs

DL

Detection limit

EEG

Electroencephalogramm

GABA

γ-Aminobutyric acid

GAMT

Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase

hArg

l-Homoarginine

hCAT

Human cationic amino acid transporter

IgG

Immunoglobulin G

NO

Nitric oxide

NOS

Nitric oxide synthase

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

nNOS

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase

OTC

Ornithine transcarbamylase

SLC

Solute carriers (family of transporter proteins)

Tyr

Tyrosine

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank B. Jerzykiewicz for excellent technical assistance.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

Brains were obtained in accordance with existing German and European Union regulations from the Magdeburg Brain Bank. All experimental procedures were in addition approved by the Ethical Committee of Magdeburg.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans-Gert Bernstein
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kristin Jäger
    • 2
  • Henrik Dobrowolny
    • 1
  • Johann Steiner
    • 1
  • Gerburg Keilhoff
    • 3
  • Bernhard Bogerts
    • 1
  • Gregor Laube
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of MedicineOtto-von-Guericke UniversityMagdeburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Anatomy and Cell BiologyUniversity of HalleHalleGermany
  3. 3.Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell BiologyOtto-von-Guericke UniversityMagdeburgGermany
  4. 4.Electron Microscopy and Molecular Neuroanatomy, Center of AnatomyCharitéBerlinGermany

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