Effects of divergent resistance exercise contraction mode and dietary supplementation type on anabolic signalling, muscle protein synthesis and muscle hypertrophy
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Greater force produced with eccentric (ECC) compared to concentric (CONC) contractions, may comprise a stronger driver of muscle growth, which may be further augmented by protein supplementation. We investigated the effect of differentiated contraction mode with either whey protein hydrolysate and carbohydrate (WPH + CHO) or isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation on regulation of anabolic signalling, muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle hypertrophy. Twenty-four human participants performed unilateral isolated maximal ECC versus CONC contractions during exercise habituation, single-bout exercise and 12 weeks of training combined with WPH + CHO or CHO supplements. In the exercise-habituated state, p-mTOR, p-p70S6K, p-rpS6 increased by approximately 42, 206 and 213 %, respectively, at 1 h post-exercise, with resistance exercise per se; whereas, the phosphorylation was exclusively maintained with ECC at 3 and 5 h post-exercise. This acute anabolic signalling response did not differ between the isocaloric supplement types, neither did protein fractional synthesis rate differ between interventions. Twelve weeks of ECC as well as CONC resistance training augmented hypertrophy with WPH + CHO group compared to the CHO group (7.3 ± 1.0 versus 3.4 ± 0.8 %), independently of exercise contraction type. Training did not produce major changes in basal levels of Akt-mTOR pathway components. In conclusion, maximal ECC contraction mode may constitute a superior driver of acute anabolic signalling that may not be mirrored in the muscle protein synthesis rate. Furthermore, with prolonged high-volume resistance training, contraction mode seems less influential on the magnitude of muscle hypertrophy, whereas protein and carbohydrate supplementation augments muscle hypertrophy as compared to isocaloric carbohydrate supplementation .
KeywordsWhey protein Hypertrophy signalling Eccentric/concentric exercise
We thank the participants for their participation in the project. Gitte Hartvigsen, and Janni Mosgaard Jensen (Section of Sport Science, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Denmark), Helle Zibrandtsen (at Reasearch Laboratory for Biochemical Pathology, Institute for Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Denmark) and Ann-Marie Sedstrøm (at Institute of Sports Medicine, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark) are thanked for technical assistance. We thank Arla Foods Ingredients Group P/S DK for funding the project.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All participants were informed about the purpose and the risks related to the study and gave written, informed consent to participate. The study was approved by The Central Denmark Region Committees on Health Research Ethics (j. no. M-20110003) and performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
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