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Amino Acids

, Volume 46, Issue 10, pp 2365–2375 | Cite as

Effects of dietary l-glutamine supplementation on specific and general defense responses in mice immunized with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine

  • Shuai Chen
  • Shuping Liu
  • Fengmei Zhang
  • Wenkai RenEmail author
  • Nengzhang Li
  • Jie Yin
  • Jielin Duan
  • Yuanyi Peng
  • Gang Liu
  • Yulong Yin
  • Guoyao Wu
Original Article

Abstract

Little is known about effects of dietary glutamine supplementation on specific and general defense responses in a vaccine-immunized animal model. Thus, this study determined roles for dietary glutamine supplementation in specific and general defense responses in mice immunized with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine. The measured variables included: (1) the production of pathogen-specific antibodies; (2) mRNA levels for pro-inflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptors and anti-oxidative factors; and (3) the distribution of P. multocida in tissues and the expression of its major virulence factors in vivo. Dietary supplementation with 0.5 % glutamine had a better protective role than 1 or 2 % glutamine against P. multocida infection in vaccine-immunized mice, at least partly resulting from its effects in modulation of general defense responses. Dietary glutamine supplementation had little effects on the production of P. multocida-specific antibodies. Compared to the non-supplemented group, dietary supplementation with 0.5 % glutamine had no effect on bacterial burden in vivo but decreased the expression of major virulence factors in the spleen. Collectively, supplementing 0.5 % glutamine to a conventional diet provides benefits in vaccine-immunized mice by enhancing general defense responses and decreasing expression of specific virulence factors.

Keywords

Glutamine Pasteurella multocida Vaccine Virulence factors Immune response 

Abbreviations

CAT

Catalase

CuZnSOD

Superoxide dismutases

GPx-1

Glutathione peroxidase 1

Ig

Immunoglobulin

IL

Interleukin

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

NQ

1,4-Naphthoquinone

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was jointly supported by National Basic Research Project (2013CB127301) MATS-Beef Cattle Yak system (CARS-38), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31272463), and Texas A&M AgriLife Research (H-82000).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shuai Chen
    • 2
  • Shuping Liu
    • 1
  • Fengmei Zhang
    • 1
  • Wenkai Ren
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nengzhang Li
    • 1
  • Jie Yin
    • 2
  • Jielin Duan
    • 2
  • Yuanyi Peng
    • 1
  • Gang Liu
    • 2
  • Yulong Yin
    • 2
  • Guoyao Wu
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Chongqing Key Laboratory of Forage and Herbivorce, College of Animal Science and TechnologySouthwest UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center of Healthy Livestock, Institute of Subtropical AgricultureChinese Academy of SciencesChangshaChina
  3. 3.Department of Animal ScienceTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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