Effects of dietary l-glutamine supplementation on specific and general defense responses in mice immunized with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine
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Little is known about effects of dietary glutamine supplementation on specific and general defense responses in a vaccine-immunized animal model. Thus, this study determined roles for dietary glutamine supplementation in specific and general defense responses in mice immunized with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine. The measured variables included: (1) the production of pathogen-specific antibodies; (2) mRNA levels for pro-inflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptors and anti-oxidative factors; and (3) the distribution of P. multocida in tissues and the expression of its major virulence factors in vivo. Dietary supplementation with 0.5 % glutamine had a better protective role than 1 or 2 % glutamine against P. multocida infection in vaccine-immunized mice, at least partly resulting from its effects in modulation of general defense responses. Dietary glutamine supplementation had little effects on the production of P. multocida-specific antibodies. Compared to the non-supplemented group, dietary supplementation with 0.5 % glutamine had no effect on bacterial burden in vivo but decreased the expression of major virulence factors in the spleen. Collectively, supplementing 0.5 % glutamine to a conventional diet provides benefits in vaccine-immunized mice by enhancing general defense responses and decreasing expression of specific virulence factors.
KeywordsGlutamine Pasteurella multocida Vaccine Virulence factors Immune response
Glutathione peroxidase 1
Tumor necrosis factor
This research was jointly supported by National Basic Research Project (2013CB127301) MATS-Beef Cattle Yak system (CARS-38), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31272463), and Texas A&M AgriLife Research (H-82000).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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