Amino Acids

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 77–90 | Cite as

Exercise-induced oxidative stress: the effects of β-alanine supplementation in women

  • A. E. SmithEmail author
  • J. R. Stout
  • K. L. Kendall
  • D. H. Fukuda
  • J. T. Cramer
Original Article


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of β-alanine supplementation on markers of oxidative stress. Twenty-four women (age: 21.7 ± 2.1 years; VO2max: 2.6 ± 0.3 l min−1) were randomly assigned, in a double-blind fashion, to a β-alanine (BA, 2 × 800 mg tablets, 3× daily; CarnoSyn®; n = 13) or placebo (PL, 2 × 800 mg maltodextrin tablets, 3× daily; n = 11) group. A graded oxygen consumption test (VO2max) was performed to evaluate VO2max, time to exhaustion, ventilatory threshold and establish peak velocity (PV). A 40-min treadmill run was used to induce oxidative stress. Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, 8-isoprostane (8ISO) and reduced glutathione were measured. Heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded during the 40 min run. Separate three- [4 × 2 × 2; acute (base vs. IP vs. 2 vs. 4 h) × chronic (pre- vs. post-) × treatment (BA vs. PL)] and two- [2 × 2; time (pre-supplement vs. post-supplement) × treatment (BA vs. PL)] way ANOVAs were used for analyses. There was a significant increase in VO2max (p = 0.009), independent of treatment, with no significant changes in TTE (p = 0.074) or VT (p = 0.344). Ratings of perceived exertion values were significantly improved from pre- to post-supplementation for the BA group only at 40 min (p = 0.02). The ANOVA model demonstrated no significant treatment effects on oxidative stress. The chronic effects of BA supplementation demonstrated little antioxidant potential, in women, and little influence on aerobic performance assessments.


Carnosine Antioxidant Sex Running Aerobic capacity Supplement 



The CarnoSyn® and placebo products used in this study were graciously donated by Natural Alternatives Inc. Additional monetary support for blood analyses was donated from Vital Pharmaceuticals Inc. We would also like to acknowledge all of the scientists involved with the International Carnosine Congress, for further expanding the carnosine/β-alanine knowledge base.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. E. Smith
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. R. Stout
    • 2
  • K. L. Kendall
    • 2
  • D. H. Fukuda
    • 2
  • J. T. Cramer
    • 3
  1. 1.Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport ScienceUniversity of North Carolina Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Metabolic and Body Composition Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise ScienceUniversity of Oklahoma NormanOKUSA
  3. 3.Applied Musculoskeletal and Physiology Laboratory, Department of Health and Human PerformanceOklahoma State University StillwaterOKUSA

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