Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a potential new biomarker in chronic kidney diseases which correlates with plasma homocysteine
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The erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase (e-GST) is a member of a superfamily of inducible enzymes involved in cell detoxification that shows an increased expression in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We propose a new automated analysis procedure for e-GST activity that has been validated in 72 CKD patients and 62 maintenance hemodialysis patients (MHD). Regression analysis was carried out to assess association between e-GST activity data, main clinical variables, and plasma homocysteine (Hcy), a modified sulfur amino acid known as potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease that is increased above normal levels in more than 90% of the uremic patients. An increased e-GST activity was confirmed in MHD patients (N = 62; 10.2 ± 0.4 U/gHb) compared with healthy subjects (N = 80; 5.8 ± 0.4 U/gHb), and as an original finding, a significant increase of e-GST activity was observed in pre-dialysis CKD patients with a positive correlation with disease severity weighted according to the four stages of “Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative” classification (7.4 ± 0.5, 8 ± 1, 9.5 ± 0.6, 12 ± 1 U/gHb, respectively). No correlation was found between e-GST activity and hemoglobin, transferrin, blood iron and the markers of systemic inflammation and renal function such as alpha-1 acid glycoprotein and high-sensitive C-Reactive Protein, beta-2 microglobulin and the index of malnutrition-inflammation PINI, while a significant correlation was observed for the first time between plasma Hcy and e-GST activity (r 2 = 0.64, P < 0.0001) in MHD patients. Hcy, however, was not identified as an inhibitor of e-GST enzyme. The results in this study suggest the potential for automated e-GST analysis as a valuable tool to further explore phase II-related uremic toxicity in CKD and MHD patients.
KeywordsChronic kidney disease Erythrocyte glutathione transferase Hyperhomocysteinemia Maintenance hemodialysis
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
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