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Amino Acids

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 347–354 | Cite as

Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a potential new biomarker in chronic kidney diseases which correlates with plasma homocysteine

  • Mariarita Dessì
  • Annalisa Noce
  • Kutayba F. Dawood
  • Francesco GalliEmail author
  • Massimo Taccone-Gallucci
  • Raffaele Fabrini
  • Alessio Bocedi
  • Renato Massoud
  • Giorgio Fucci
  • Anna Pastore
  • Simone Manca di Villahermosa
  • Viviana Zingaretti
  • Giorgio Federici
  • Giorgio RicciEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

The erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase (e-GST) is a member of a superfamily of inducible enzymes involved in cell detoxification that shows an increased expression in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We propose a new automated analysis procedure for e-GST activity that has been validated in 72 CKD patients and 62 maintenance hemodialysis patients (MHD). Regression analysis was carried out to assess association between e-GST activity data, main clinical variables, and plasma homocysteine (Hcy), a modified sulfur amino acid known as potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease that is increased above normal levels in more than 90% of the uremic patients. An increased e-GST activity was confirmed in MHD patients (N = 62; 10.2 ± 0.4 U/gHb) compared with healthy subjects (N = 80; 5.8 ± 0.4 U/gHb), and as an original finding, a significant increase of e-GST activity was observed in pre-dialysis CKD patients with a positive correlation with disease severity weighted according to the four stages of “Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative” classification (7.4 ± 0.5, 8 ± 1, 9.5 ± 0.6, 12 ± 1 U/gHb, respectively). No correlation was found between e-GST activity and hemoglobin, transferrin, blood iron and the markers of systemic inflammation and renal function such as alpha-1 acid glycoprotein and high-sensitive C-Reactive Protein, beta-2 microglobulin and the index of malnutrition-inflammation PINI, while a significant correlation was observed for the first time between plasma Hcy and e-GST activity (r 2 = 0.64, P < 0.0001) in MHD patients. Hcy, however, was not identified as an inhibitor of e-GST enzyme. The results in this study suggest the potential for automated e-GST analysis as a valuable tool to further explore phase II-related uremic toxicity in CKD and MHD patients.

Keywords

Chronic kidney disease Erythrocyte glutathione transferase Hyperhomocysteinemia Maintenance hemodialysis 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariarita Dessì
    • 1
  • Annalisa Noce
    • 3
  • Kutayba F. Dawood
    • 4
  • Francesco Galli
    • 2
    Email author
  • Massimo Taccone-Gallucci
    • 3
  • Raffaele Fabrini
    • 4
  • Alessio Bocedi
    • 4
  • Renato Massoud
    • 1
  • Giorgio Fucci
    • 1
  • Anna Pastore
    • 5
  • Simone Manca di Villahermosa
    • 3
  • Viviana Zingaretti
    • 4
  • Giorgio Federici
    • 1
  • Giorgio Ricci
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Laboratory MedicineUniversity of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’RomeItaly
  2. 2.Deparment of Internal MedicineUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  3. 3.Nephrology and Dialysis UnitUniversity of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’RomeItaly
  4. 4.Department of Chemical Sciences and TechnologiesUniversity of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’RomeItaly
  5. 5.Biochemistry LaboratoryChildren’s Hospital and Research Institute ‘Bambino Gesù’RomeItaly

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