Amino Acids

, Volume 40, Issue 4, pp 1221–1229 | Cite as

Vegetarianism, female gender and increasing age, but not CNDP1 genotype, are associated with reduced muscle carnosine levels in humans

  • Inge Everaert
  • Antien Mooyaart
  • Audrey Baguet
  • Ana Zutinic
  • Hans Baelde
  • Eric Achten
  • Youri Taes
  • Emile De Heer
  • Wim DeraveEmail author
Original Article


Carnosine is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscles, where it is involved in several physiological functions. The muscle carnosine content measured within a population can vary by a factor 4. The aim of this study was to further characterize suggested determinants of the muscle carnosine content (diet, gender and age) and to identify new determinants (plasma carnosinase activity and testosterone). We investigated a group of 149 healthy subjects, which consisted of 94 men (12 vegetarians) and 55 women. Muscle carnosine was quantified in M. soleus, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior using magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy and blood samples were collected to determine CNDP1 genotype, plasma carnosinase activity and testosterone concentrations. Compared to women, men have 36, 28 and 82% higher carnosine concentrations in M. soleus, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, whereas circulating testosterone concentrations were unrelated to muscle carnosine levels in healthy men. The carnosine content of the M. soleus is negatively related to the subjects’ age. Vegetarians have a lower carnosine content of 26% in gastrocnemius compared to omnivores. In contrast, there is no difference in muscle carnosine content between omnivores with a high or low ingestion of β-alanine. Muscle carnosine levels are not related to the polymorphism of the CNDP1 gene or to the enzymatic activity of the plasma carnosinase. In conclusion, neither CNDP1 genotype nor the normal variation in circulating testosterone levels affects the muscular carnosine content, whereas vegetarianism, female gender and increasing age are the factors associated with reduced muscle carnosine stores.


Carnosine Gender Age Vegetarianism CNDP1 genotype Androgens 



This study was financially supported by grants from the Research Foundation—Flanders (FWO and G.0046.09) and by the EU-funded specifically targeted project, PREDICTIONS, to identify risk factors for developing diabetic nephropathy (FP6-018733, Audrey Baguet is a recipient of a PhD-scholarship from the Research Foundation—Flanders. MRS was performed at GIfMI ( The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inge Everaert
    • 1
  • Antien Mooyaart
    • 2
  • Audrey Baguet
    • 1
  • Ana Zutinic
    • 2
  • Hans Baelde
    • 2
  • Eric Achten
    • 3
  • Youri Taes
    • 4
  • Emile De Heer
    • 2
  • Wim Derave
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Movement and Sport SciencesGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Department of PathologyLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Ghent Institute for Functional and Metabolic Imaging (GifMI)Ghent UniversityGhentBelgium
  4. 4.Department of EndocrinologyGhent University HospitalGhentBelgium

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