S100B: a multifunctional role in cardiovascular pathophysiology
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S100B, a calcium-binding protein of the EF-hand type exerts both intracellular and extracellular functions. S100B is induced in the myocardium of human subjects and an experimental rat model following myocardial infarction. Forced expression of S100B in neonatal rat myocyte cultures, and high level expression of S100B in transgenic mice hearts and aortic smooth muscle cells inhibit cardiac hypertrophy and the associated phenotype, arterial smooth muscle proliferation, respectively, but demonstrate increased apoptosis following α1-adrenergic stimulation or myocardial infarction. Knocking out S100B, augmented hypertrophy, decreased apoptosis and preserved cardiac function following myocardial infarction. S100B induces apoptosis by an extracellular mechanism by interacting with the receptor for advanced glycation end products and activating ERK1/2 and p53 signaling. The intracellular, and extracellular, roles of S100B are attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of both cardiac and vascular disease.
KeywordsS100B Myocyte hypertrophy Apoptosis Receptor for advanced glycation end products
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