In animal cells, the centrosome nucleates and anchors microtubules (MT), forming their radial array. During interphase centrosome-derived MT, aster can either team up with other MT network or function in an autonomous manner. What is the function of the centrosome-derived MT aster? We suggested that it might play an important role in the formation of the primary cilium, the organelle obligatorily associated with the centrosome. PCM-1 (PeriCentriolar Matrix 1) protein, which participates in the organization of the primary cilium, is a part of pericentiolar satellites. They are transported to the centrosome along MTs by the motor protein dynein in a complex with its cofactor dynactin. Previously, we showed that SLK/LOSK phosphorylated the p150Glued subunit of dynactin, thus promoting its centrosomal targeting followed by its participation in the retention of microtubules. Here, we found that under the repression of SLK/LOSK activity, the PCM-1 protein lost its pericentrosomal localization and was being dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Despite that the alanine and glutamine mutants of p150Glued had opposite effects on PCM-1 localization, they associated with PCM-1 to the same extent. The occurrence of primary cilia also significantly decreased when SLK/LOSK was repressed. These defects also correlated with a disturbance of the long-range transport in cells, whereas dynein-depending motility was intact. Treatment with the GSK-3β kinase inhibitor also resulted in the loss of the centrosome-derived MT aster, dispersion of PCM-1 over the cytoplasm, and reduction of primary cilia occurrence. Thus, kinases involved in the centrosome-derived MT aster regulation can indirectly control the formation of primary cilia in cells.
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The authors are very grateful to Prof. Andrea Merdes (Université Paul Sabatier/CNRS, Toulouse) for the great anti-PCM-1 antibody. We also thank Dr. Hans-Peter Hauri (University of Basel) for DNA construct, Dr. Ilya Brodsky (Moscow State University) for DNA constructs and fruitful discussions, and Ekaterina Ryabkova for technical assistance.
The project was financially supported by the President of Russain Federation grant for young PhD researchers (MK-8703.2010.4) and grants from the Russian Basic Research Foundation (08-04-01697-a, 11-04-01022-a, and 18-04-00742-a).
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Fokin Artem, I., Zhapparova Olga, N., Burakov Anton, V. et al. Centrosome-derived microtubule radial array, PCM-1 protein, and primary cilia formation. Protoplasma 256, 1361–1373 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-019-01385-z
- Protein kinase
- Dynein-driven transport
- Primary cilium