Microevolution and independent incursions as main forces shaping H5 Hemagglutinin diversity during a H5N8/H5N5 highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in Czech Republic in 2017
Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the H5N8/H5N5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus strains detected in the Czech Republic during an outbreak in 2017. Network analysis of the H5 Hemagglutinin (HA) from 99% of the outbreak localities suggested that the diversity of the Czech H5N8/H5N5 viruses was influenced by two basic forces: local microevolution and independent incursions. The geographical occurrence of the central node H5 HA sequences revealed three eco-regions, which apparently played an important role in the origin and further spread of the local H5N8/HPAI variants across the country. A plausible explanation for the observed pattern of diversity is also provided.
We would like to thank all of the contributors to the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) database.
Compliance with ethical standards
This work was performed in connection with the National surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N8 and H5N5 subtypes in the Czech Republic in 2017, and was not funded by additional financial sources.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
- 1.Brown I, Mulatti P, Smietanka K et al (2017) Avian influenza overview October 2016–August 2017. EFSA J 15:5018Google Scholar
- 6.Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data. http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend#61285e. Accessed 5 Jan 2018
- 7.Savić V (2017) Novel reassortant clade 188.8.131.52 avian influenza A(H5N5) virus in wild birds and poultry, Croatia, 2016–2017. Vet Archiv 87:377–396Google Scholar
- 17.BirdLife International (2018) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Trebonsko (Trebon region). http://www.birdlife.org on 29/01/2018. Accessed 31 Jan 2018
- 20.Nagy A, Vostinakova V, Pindova Z et al (2009) Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the H5N1 avian influenza virus caused the first highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in poultry in the Czech Republic in 2007. Vet Microbiol 133:257–263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.07.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 21.Musilová Z, Musil P, Zouhar J et al (2015) Long-term trends, total numbers and species richness of increasing waterbird populations at sites on the edge of their winter range: cold-weather refuge sites are more important than protected sites. J Ornithol 156:923–932. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-015-1223-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Adam M, Musil P, Musilová Z (2016) Trends in numbers of wintering waterbird species in Czech Republic between 1966 and 2015. Aythya 6:27–39Google Scholar