Archives of Virology

, Volume 163, Issue 8, pp 2219–2224 | Cite as

Microevolution and independent incursions as main forces shaping H5 Hemagglutinin diversity during a H5N8/H5N5 highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in Czech Republic in 2017

  • Alexander Nagy
  • Ádám Dán
  • Lenka Černíková
  • Eliška Vitásková
  • Vlastimil Křivda
  • Jitka Horníčková
  • Roman Masopust
  • Kamil Sedlák
Brief Report


Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the H5N8/H5N5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus strains detected in the Czech Republic during an outbreak in 2017. Network analysis of the H5 Hemagglutinin (HA) from 99% of the outbreak localities suggested that the diversity of the Czech H5N8/H5N5 viruses was influenced by two basic forces: local microevolution and independent incursions. The geographical occurrence of the central node H5 HA sequences revealed three eco-regions, which apparently played an important role in the origin and further spread of the local H5N8/HPAI variants across the country. A plausible explanation for the observed pattern of diversity is also provided.



We would like to thank all of the contributors to the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) database.

Compliance with ethical standards


This work was performed in connection with the National surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N8 and H5N5 subtypes in the Czech Republic in 2017, and was not funded by additional financial sources.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

705_2018_3833_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (310 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 310 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Nagy
    • 1
  • Ádám Dán
    • 2
  • Lenka Černíková
    • 1
  • Eliška Vitásková
    • 1
  • Vlastimil Křivda
    • 1
  • Jitka Horníčková
    • 1
  • Roman Masopust
    • 1
  • Kamil Sedlák
    • 1
  1. 1.State Veterinary Institute PraguePragueCzech Republic
  2. 2.National Food Chain Safety Office, Veterinary Diagnostic InstituteBudapestHungary

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