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Archives of Virology

, Volume 163, Issue 8, pp 2283–2294 | Cite as

Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2018

  • Gaya K. Amarasinghe
  • Nidia G. Aréchiga Ceballos
  • Ashley C. Banyard
  • Christopher F. Basler
  • Sina Bavari
  • Andrew J. Bennett
  • Kim R. Blasdell
  • Thomas Briese
  • Alexander Bukreyev
  • Yíngyún Caì
  • Charles H. Calisher
  • Cristine Campos Lawson
  • Kartik Chandran
  • Colin A. Chapman
  • Charles Y. Chiu
  • Kang-Seuk Choi
  • Peter L. Collins
  • Ralf G. Dietzgen
  • Valerian V. Dolja
  • Olga Dolnik
  • Leslie L. Domier
  • Ralf Dürrwald
  • John M. Dye
  • Andrew J. Easton
  • Hideki Ebihara
  • Juan E. Echevarría
  • Anthony R. Fooks
  • Pierre B. H. Formenty
  • Ron A. M. Fouchier
  • Conrad M. Freuling
  • Elodie Ghedin
  • Tony L. Goldberg
  • Roger Hewson
  • Masayuki Horie
  • Timothy H. Hyndman
  • Dàohóng Jiāng
  • Robert Kityo
  • Gary P. Kobinger
  • Hideki Kondō
  • Eugene V. Koonin
  • Mart Krupovic
  • Gael Kurath
  • Robert A. Lamb
  • Benhur Lee
  • Eric M. Leroy
  • Piet Maes
  • Andrea Maisner
  • Denise A. Marston
  • Sunil Kumar Mor
  • Thomas Müller
  • Elke Mühlberger
  • Víctor Manuel Neira Ramírez
  • Sergey V. Netesov
  • Terry Fei Fan Ng
  • Norbert Nowotny
  • Gustavo Palacios
  • Jean L. Patterson
  • Janusz T. Pawęska
  • Susan L. Payne
  • Karla Prieto
  • Bertus K. Rima
  • Paul Rota
  • Dennis Rubbenstroth
  • Martin Schwemmle
  • Stuart Siddell
  • Sophie J. Smither
  • Qisheng Song
  • Timothy Song
  • Mark D. Stenglein
  • David M. Stone
  • Ayato Takada
  • Robert B. Tesh
  • Luciano Matsumiya Thomazelli
  • Keizō Tomonaga
  • Noël Tordo
  • Jonathan S. Towner
  • Nikos Vasilakis
  • Sonia Vázquez-Morón
  • Claudio Verdugo
  • Viktor E. Volchkov
  • Victoria Wahl
  • Peter J. Walker
  • David Wang
  • Lin-Fa Wang
  • James F. X. Wellehan
  • Michael R. Wiley
  • Anna E. Whitfield
  • Yuri I. Wolf
  • Gōngyín Yè
  • Yǒng-Zhèn Zhāng
  • Jens H. Kuhn
Virology Division News

Abstract

In 2018, the order Mononegavirales was expanded by inclusion of 1 new genus and 12 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and summarizes additional taxonomic proposals that may affect the order in the near future.

Introduction

The virus order Mononegavirales was established in 1991 to accommodate related viruses with nonsegmented, linear, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genomes distributed among three families [19, 20]. Today, the order includes 8 families [1, 2, 11, 21]. Amended/emended order descriptions were published in 1995 [5], 1997 [22], 2000 [23], 2005 [24], 2011 [6], 2016 [2], and 2017 [3]. In 2017, the Study Groups of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) responsible for the taxonomy of the order and its 8 families assigned unclassified mononegaviruses to existing or novel taxa and continued efforts to streamline the order nomenclature in collaboration with other virus experts. Here we present the changes that were proposed via official ICTV taxonomic proposals (TaxoProps) at http://www.ictvonline.org/ in 2017 and accepted by the ICTV Executive Committee (EC). These changes are part of the official ICTV taxonomy as of 2018.

Taxonomic changes at the order rank

In 2018, no changes were made at the order rank.

Taxonomic changes at the family rank

Bornaviridae

The family Bornaviridae was expanded in 2018 by creation of a second genus (Carbovirus), including two novel species for the newly discovered jungle carpet python virus (JCPV) and southwest carpet python virus (SWCPV) found in carpet pythons (Pythonidae: Morelia spilota), respectively [10]. The previously established genus Bornavirus was renamed Orthobornavirus to remove the ambiguity of the terms “bornavirus”/“bornaviral” that resulted due to the creation of the second genus (in absence of the genus name change, “bornavirus”/“bornaviral” could refer either to all members of the family Bornaviridae or only to those of the genus Bornavirus). All binomial species names of the genus Bornavirus were adjusted by replacing the genus epithet “bornavirus” with “orthobornavirus” (TaxoProps 2017.005M.A.v1.Carbovirus and 2017.004M.A.v1.Bornaviridae_ren).

Filoviridae

The species name Taï Forest ebolavirus was changed to Tai Forest ebolavirus by removal of the diaeresis (TaxoProp 2017.001G.A.v2.43spren).

Mymonaviridae

In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Nyamiviridae

In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Paramyxoviridae

The genus Avulavirus was expanded in 2018 by the addition of six species (TaxoProp 2017.010M.A.v2.Avulavirus_6sp). The species Avian avulavirus 14–16 were established for avian paramyxoviruses 14–16 (APMV-14–16) that were recently discovered in an unspecified duck in Japan, a white-rumped sandpiper (Scolopacidae: Calidris fuscicollis) in Brazil, and unspecified birds in South Korea, respectively [12, 27, 28]. The species Avian avulavirus 17–19 were established for Antarctic penguin viruses AC (APVA–APVC) that were recently discovered in Antarctic long-tailed gentoo penguins (Spheniscidae: Pygoscelis papua) [18].

Pneumoviridae

In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Rhabdoviridae

The genus Ledantevirus was expanded in 2018 by one species, Kanywara ledantevirus, for Kanywara virus (KYAV) recently discovered in an unclassified nycteribiid batfly in Uganda [8] (TaxoProp 2017.009M.A.v1.Ledantevirus_sp).

The genus Lyssavirus was expanded by the addition of two novel species, Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus and Lleida bat lyssavirus, for Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus (GBLV) and Lleida bat virus (LLEBV), recently discovered in Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka and in a Schreibers’s long-fingered bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain in 2011, respectively [4, 9, 15] (TaxoProps 2017.013M.A.v1.Lyssavirus_sp and 2017.014M.A.v1.Lyssavirus_sp).

Finally, the genus Tibrovirus was expanded by one species, Beatrice Hill tibrovirus, for Beatrice Hill virus (BHV) discovered in 1984 in Australian biting midges (Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides peregrinus) [26, 29] (TaxoProp 2017.019M.U.v1.Tibrovirus_sp).

Sunviridae

In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.

Outlook

The taxonomy of viruses of the order Mononegavirales remains in flux and additional important changes are likely forthcoming. Indeed, in 2017, two additional taxonomic proposals that would affect the order Mononegavirales were debated during the most recent ICTV EC meeting in Singapore. TaxoProp 2017.006M.U.v2.Negarnaviricota proposes
  • establishment of a phylum for negative-sense RNA viruses that is subdivided into two subphyla;

  • establishment of a sister order to the order Mononegavirales to accommodate the recently discovered “chǔviruses” [13, 25]; and

  • combination of both sister orders in a class assigned to one of the subphyla.

TaxoProp 2017.016M.U.v3.Mononegavirales_rev proposes
  • expansion of the family Mymonaviridae by 6 species for novel soybean leaf-associated viruses and an invertebrate virus [16, 17, 25];

  • transfer of the nyamiviral genus Peropuvirus into a new family and expansion of the genus by 6 species for novel invertebrate viruses [13, 25];

  • transfer of the free-floating genus Crustavirus into the family Nyamiviridae; the expansion of Crustavirus by two species for novel invertebrate viruses; and the expansion of Nyamiviridae by an additional three genera that include a total of five species for novel invertebrate viruses [13, 25];

  • establishment of a new family that absorbs the previously free-floating genus Anphevirus and expansion of this genus by six species for novel invertebrate viruses [7, 13, 14, 25]; and

  • dissolution of the previously free-floating genera Chengivirus and Wastrivirus and transfer of their species into the genus Arlivirus, expansion of Arlivirus by three new species for novel invertebrate viruses [13, 25], and transfer of this genus into a new family.

These two proposals failed to find unanimous approval at a final ICTV EC vote in fall of 2017 and were deferred to the 2018 ICTV EC meeting, at which a simple majority vote would suffice for approval of the original proposals.

Summary

A summary of the current, ICTV-accepted taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales is presented in Table 1.
Table 1

ICTV-accepted taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as of 2018. Listed are all mononegaviruses that have been classified into species

Genus

Species

Virus (Abbreviation)

Family Bornaviridae

 Carbovirus

Queensland carbovirus*

jungle carpet python virus (JCPV)

Southwest carbovirus

southwest carpet python virus (SWCPV)

 Orthobornavirus

Elapid 1 orthobornavirus

Loveridge’s garter snake virus 1 (LGSV-1)

Mammalian 1 orthobornavirus*

Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1)

Borna disease virus 2 (BoDV-2)

Mammalian 2 orthobornavirus

variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1)

Passeriform 1 orthobornavirus

canary bornavirus 1 (CnBV-1)

canary bornavirus 2 (CnBV-2)

canary bornavirus 3 (CnBV-3)

Passeriform 2 orthobornavirus

estrildid finch bornavirus 1 (EsBV-1)

Psittaciform 1 orthobornavirus

parrot bornavirus 1 (PaBV-1)

parrot bornavirus 2 (PaBV-2)

parrot bornavirus 3 (PaBV-3)

parrot bornavirus 4 (PaBV-4)

parrot bornavirus 7 (PaBV-7)

Psittaciform 2 orthobornavirus

parrot bornavirus 5 (PaBV-5)

Waterbird 1 orthobornavirus

aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1)

aquatic bird bornavirus 2 (ABBV-2)

Family Filoviridae

 Cuevavirus

Lloviu cuevavirus*

Lloviu virus (LLOV)

 Ebolavirus

Bundibugyo ebolavirus

Bundibugyo virus (BDBV)

Reston ebolavirus

Reston virus (RESTV)

Sudan ebolavirus

Sudan virus (SUDV)

Tai Forest ebolavirus

Taï Forest virus (TAFV)

Zaire ebolavirus*

Ebola virus (EBOV)

 Marburgvirus

Marburg marburgvirus*

Marburg virus (MARV)

Ravn virus (RAVV)

Family Mymonaviridae

 Sclerotimonavirus

Sclerotinia sclerotimonavirus*

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (SsNSRV-1)

Family Nyamiviridae

 Nyavirus

Midway nyavirus

Midway virus (MIDWV)

Nyamanini nyavirus*

Nyamanini virus (NYMV)

Sierra Nevada nyavirus

Sierra Nevada virus (SNVV)

 Peropuvirus

Pteromalus puparum peropuvirus*

Pteromalus puparum negative-strand RNA virus 1 (PpNSRV-1)

 Socyvirus

Soybean cyst nematode socyvirus*

soybean cyst nematode virus 1 (SbCNV-1)

Family Paramyxoviridae

 Aquaparamyxovirus

Salmon aquaparamyxovirus*

Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (AsaPV)

 Avulavirus

Avian avulavirus 1*

avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1)1

Avian avulavirus 2

avian paramyxovirus 2 (APMV-2)

Avian avulavirus 3

avian paramyxovirus 3 (APMV-3)

Avian avulavirus 4

avian paramyxovirus 4 (APMV-4)

Avian avulavirus 5

avian paramyxovirus 5 (APMV-5)

Avian avulavirus 6

avian paramyxovirus 6 (APMV-6)

Avian avulavirus 7

avian paramyxovirus 7 (APMV-7)

Avian avulavirus 8

avian paramyxovirus 8 (APMV-8)

Avian avulavirus 9

avian paramyxovirus 9 (APMV-9)

Avian avulavirus 10

avian paramyxovirus 10 (APMV-10)

Avian avulavirus 11

avian paramyxovirus 11 (APMV-11)

Avian avulavirus 12

avian paramyxovirus 12 (APMV-12)

Avian avulavirus 13

avian paramyxovirus 13 (APMV-13)

Avian avulavirus 14

avian paramyxovirus 14 (APMV-14)

Avian avulavirus 15

avian paramyxovirus 15 (APMV-15)

Avian avulavirus 16

avian paramyxovirus 16 (APMV-16)

Avian avulavirus 17

Antarctic penguin virus A (APV-A)

Avian avulavirus 18

Antarctic penguin virus B (APV-B)

Avian avulavirus 19

Antarctic penguin virus C (APV-C)

 Ferlavirus

Reptilian ferlavirus*

Fer-de-Lance virus (FDLV)

 Henipavirus

Cedar henipavirus

Cedar virus (CedV)

Ghanaian bat henipavirus

Kumasi virus (KV)2

Hendra henipavirus*

Hendra virus (HeV)

Mojiang henipavirus

Mòjiāng virus (MojV)

Nipah henipavirus

Nipah virus (NiV)

 Morbillivirus

Canine morbillivirus

canine distemper virus (CDV)

Cetacean morbillivirus

cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV)

Feline morbillivirus

feline morbillivirus (FeMV)

Measles morbillivirus*

measles virus (MeV)

Small ruminant morbillivirus

peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV)

Phocine morbillivirus

phocine distemper virus (PDV)

Rinderpest morbillivirus

rinderpest virus (RPV)

 Respirovirus

Bovine respirovirus 3

bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3)

Human respirovirus 1

human parainfluenza virus 1 (HPIV-1)

Human respirovirus 3

human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV-3)

Porcine respirovirus 1

porcine parainfluenza virus 1 (PPIV-1)

Murine respirovirus*

Sendai virus (SeV)3

 Rubulavirus

Achimota rubulavirus 1

Achimota virus 1 (AchPV-1)

Achimota rubulavirus 2

Achimota virus 2 (AchPV-2)

Bat mumps rubulavirus

bat mumps virus (BMV)4

Canine rubulavirus

parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV-5)5

Human rubulavirus 2

human parainfluenza virus 2 (HPIV-2)

Human rubulavirus 4

human parainfluenza virus 4a (HPIV-4a)

human parainfluenza virus 4b (HPIV-4b)

Mapuera rubulavirus

Mapuera virus (MapV)

Menangle rubulavirus

Menangle virus (MenPV)

Mumps rubulavirus*

mumps virus (MuV)

Porcine rubulavirus

La Piedad Michoacán Mexico virus (LPMV)6

Simian rubulavirus

simian virus 41 (SV-41)

Sosuga rubulavirus

Sosuga virus

Teviot rubulavirus

Teviot virus (TevPV)

Tioman rubulavirus

Tioman virus (TioPV)

Tuhoko rubulavirus 1

Tuhoko virus 1 (ThkPV-1)

Tuhoko rubulavirus 2

Tuhoko virus 2 (ThkPV-2)

Tuhoko rubulavirus 3

Tuhoko virus 3 (ThkPV-3)

Family Pneumoviridae

 Metapneumovirus

Avian metapneumovirus*

avian metapneumovirus (AMPV)7

Human metapneumovirus

human metapneumovirus (HMPV)

 Orthopneumovirus

Bovine orthopneumovirus

bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV)

Human orthopneumovirus*

human respiratory syncytial virus A2 (HRSV-A2)

human respiratory syncytial virus B1 (HRSV-B1)

Murine orthopneumovirus

murine pneumonia virus (MPV)

Family Rhabdoviridae

 Almendravirus

Arboretum almendravirus

Arboretum virus (ABTV)

Balsa almendravirus

Balsa virus (BALV)

Coot Bay almendravirus

Coot Bay virus (CBV)

Puerto Almendras almendravirus*

Puerto Almendras virus (PTAMV)

Rio Chico almendravirus

Rio Chico virus (RCHV)

 Curiovirus

Curionopolis curiovirus*

Curionopolis virus (CURV)

Iriri curiovirus

Iriri virus (IRIRV)

Itacaiunas curiovirus

Itacaiunas virus (ITAV)

Rochambeau curiovirus

Rochambeau virus (RBUV)

 Cytorhabdovirus

Alfalfa dwarf cytorhabdovirus

alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV)

Barley yellow striate mosaic cytorhabdovirus

barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV)

Broccoli necrotic yellows cytorhabdovirus

broccoli necrotic yellows virus (BNYV)

Colocasia bobone disease-associated cytorhabdovirus

Colocasia bobone disease-associated virus (CBDaV)

Festuca leaf streak cytorhabdovirus

festuca leaf streak virus (FLSV)

Lettuce necrotic yellows cytorhabdovirus*

lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV)

Lettuce yellow mottle cytorhabdovirus

lettuce yellow mottle virus (LYMoV)

Northern cereal mosaic cytorhabdovirus

northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV)

Sonchus cytorhabdovirus 1

sonchus virus (SonV)

Strawberry crinkle cytorhabdovirus

strawberry crinkle virus (SCV)

Wheat American striate mosaic cytorhabdovirus

wheat American striate mosaic virus (WASMV)

 Dichorhavirus

Coffee ringspot dichorhavirus

coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV)

Orchid fleck dichorhavirus*

orchid fleck virus (OFV)8

 Ephemerovirus

Adelaide River ephemerovirus

Adelaide River virus (ARV)

Berrimah ephemerovirus

Berrimah virus (BRMV)

Bovine fever ephemerovirus*

bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV)

Kimberley ephemerovirus

Kimberley virus (KIMV)

 

Malakal virus (MALV)

Koolpinyah ephemerovirus

Koolpinyah virus (KOOLV)

Kotonkan ephemerovirus

kotonkan virus (KOTV)

Obodhiang ephemerovirus

Obodhiang virus (OBOV)

Yata ephemerovirus

Yata virus (YATV)

 Hapavirus

Flanders hapavirus

Flanders virus (FLAV)

Hart Park hapavirus

Hart Park virus (HPV)

Gray Lodge hapavirus

Gray Lodge virus (GLOV)

Joinjakaka hapavirus

Joinjakaka virus (JOIV)

La Joya hapavirus

La Joya virus (LJV)

Kamese hapavirus

Kamese virus (KAMV)

Landjia hapavirus

Landjia virus (LANV = LJAV)

Manitoba hapavirus

Manitoba virus (MANV = MNTBV)

Marco hapavirus

Marco virus (MCOV)

Mosqueiro hapavirus

Mosqueiro virus (MQOV)

Mossuril hapavirus

Mossuril virus (MOSV)

Ngaingan hapavirus

Ngaingan virus (NGAV)

Ord River hapavirus

Ord River virus (ORV)

Parry Creek hapavirus

Parry Creek virus (PCV)

Wongabel hapavirus*

Wongabel virus (WONV)

 Ledantevirus

Barur ledantevirus

Barur virus (BARV)

Fikirini ledantevirus

Fikirini virus (FKRV)

Fukuoka ledantevirus

Fukuoka virus (FUKV)

Kanyawara ledantevirus

Kanyawara virus (KYAV)

Kern Canyon ledantevirus

Kern Canyon virus (KCV)

Keuraliba ledantevirus

Keuraliba virus (KEUV)

Kolente ledantevirus

Kolente virus (KOLEV)

Kumasi ledantevirus

Kumasi rhabdovirus (KRV)

Le Dantec ledantevirus*

Le Dantec virus (LDV)

Mount Elgon bat ledantevirus

Mount Elgon bat virus (MEBV)

Nkolbisson ledantevirus

Nkolbisson virus (NKOV)

Nishimuro ledantevirus

Nishimuro virus (NISV)9

Oita ledantevirus

Oita virus (OITAV)

Wuhan ledantevirus

Wǔhàn louse fly virus 5 (WLFV-5)

Yongjia ledantevirus

Yǒngjiā tick virus 2 (YTV-2)

 Lyssavirus

Aravan lyssavirus

Aravan virus (ARAV)

Australian bat lyssavirus

Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV)

Bokeloh bat lyssavirus

Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV)

Duvenhage lyssavirus

Duvenhage virus (DUVV)

European bat 1 lyssavirus

European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1)

European bat 2 lyssavirus

European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2)

Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus

Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus (GBLV)

Ikoma lyssavirus

Ikoma lyssavirus (IKOV)

Irkut lyssavirus

Irkut virus (IRKV)

Khujand lyssavirus

Khujand virus (KHUV)

Lagos bat lyssavirus

Lagos bat virus (LBV)

Lleida bat lyssavirus

Lleida bat virus (LLEBV)

Mokola lyssavirus

Mokola virus (MOKV)

Rabies lyssavirus*

rabies virus (RABV)

Shimoni bat lyssavirus

Shimoni bat virus (SHIBV)

West Caucasian bat lyssavirus

West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV)

 Novirhabdovirus

Hirame novirhabdovirus

hirame rhabdovirus (HIRV)

Piscine novirhabdovirus

viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV)10

Salmonid novirhabdovirus*

infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)

Snakehead novirhabdovirus

snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV)

 Nucleorhabdovirus

Datura yellow vein nucleorhabdovirus

datura yellow vein virus (DYVV)

Eggplant mottled dwarf nucleorhabdovirus

eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV)

Maize fine streak nucleorhabdovirus

maize fine streak virus (MSFV)

Maize Iranian mosaic nucleorhabdovirus

maize Iranian mosaic virus (MIMV)

Maize mosaic nucleorhabdovirus

maize mosaic virus (MMV)

Potato yellow dwarf nucleorhabdovirus*

potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV)

Rice yellow stunt nucleorhabdovirus

rice yellow stunt virus (RYSV)

rice transitory yellowing virus (RTYV)

Sonchus yellow net nucleorhabdovirus

sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV)

Sowthistle yellow vein nucleorhabdovirus

sowthistle yellow vein virus (SYVV)

Taro vein chlorosis nucleorhabdovirus

taro vein chlorosis virus (TaVCV)

 Perhabdovirus

Anguillid perhabdovirus

eel virus European X (EVEX)

Perch perhabdovirus*

perch rhabdovirus (PRV)

Sea trout perhabdovirus

lake trout rhabdovirus (LTRV)

 Sigmavirus

Drosophila affinis sigmavirus

Drosophila affinis sigmavirus (DAffSV)

Drosophila ananassae sigmavirus

Drosophila ananassae sigmavirus (DAnaSV)

Drosophila immigrans sigmavirus

Drosophila immigrans sigmavirus (DImmSV)

Drosophila melanogaster sigmavirus*

Drosophila melanogaster sigmavirus (DMelSV)

Drosophila obscura sigmavirus

Drosophila obscura sigmavirus (DObsSV)

Drosophila tristis sigmavirus

Drosophila tristis sigmavirus (DTriSV)

Muscina stabulans sigmavirus

Muscina stabulans sigmavirus (MStaSV)

 Sprivivirus

Carp sprivivirus*

spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV)

Pike fry sprivivirus

grass carp rhabdovirus (GrCRV)

pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV)

tench rhabdovirus (TenRV)

 Sripuvirus

Almpiwar sripuvirus

Almpiwar virus (ALMV)

Chaco sripuvirus

Chaco virus (CHOV)

Niakha sripuvirus*

Niakha virus (NIAV)

Sena Madureira sripuvirus

Sena Madureira virus (SMV)

Sripur sripuvirus

Sripur virus (SRIV)

 Tibrovirus

Bas Congo tibrovirus

Bas-Congo virus (BASV)

Beatrice Hill tibrovirus

Beatrice Hill virus (BHV)

Coastal Plains tibrovirus

Coastal Plains virus (CPV)

Ekpoma 1 tibrovirus

Ekpoma virus 1 (EKV-1)

Ekpoma 2 tibrovirus

Ekpoma virus 2 (EKV-2)

Sweetwater Branch tibrovirus

Sweetwater Branch virus (SWBV)

Tibrogargan tibrovirus*

Bivens Arm virus (BAV)

Tibrogargan virus (TIBV)

 Tupavirus

Durham tupavirus*

Durham virus (DURV)

Klamath tupavirus

Klamath virus (KLAV)

Tupaia tupavirus

tupaia virus (TUPV)

 Varicosavirus

Lettuce big-vein associated varicosavirus*

lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV)11

 Vesiculovirus

Alagoas vesiculovirus

vesicular stomatitis Alagoas virus (VSAV)

American bat vesiculovirus

American bat vesiculovirus (ABVV)

Carajas vesiculovirus

Carajás virus (CJSV)

Chandipura vesiculovirus

Chandipura virus (CHPV)

Cocal vesiculovirus

Cocal virus (COCV)

Indiana vesiculovirus*

vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV)

Isfahan vesiculovirus

Isfahan virus (ISFV)

Jurona vesiculovirus

Jurona virus (JURV)

Malpais Spring vesiculovirus

Malpais Spring virus (MSPV)

Maraba vesiculovirus

Maraba virus (MARAV)

Morreton vesiculovirus

Morreton virus (MORV)

New Jersey vesiculovirus

vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV)

Perinet vesiculovirus

Perinet virus (PERV)

Piry vesiculovirus

Piry virus (PIRYV)

Radi vesiculovirus

Radi virus (RADV)

Yug Bogdanovac vesiculovirus

Yug Bogdanovac virus (YBV)

Unassigned

Moussa virus

Moussa virus (MOUV)

Family Sunviridae

 Sunshinevirus

Reptile sunshinevirus 1*

Sunshine Coast virus (SunCV)

Unassigned

 Anphevirus

Xincheng anphevirus*

Xīnchéng mosquito virus (XcMV)

 Arlivirus

Lishi arlivirus*

Líshí spider virus 2 (LsSV-2)

 Chengtivirus

Tacheng chengtivirus*

Tǎchéng tick virus 6 (TcTV-6)

 Crustavirus

Wenzhou crustavirus*

Wēnzhōu crab virus 1 (WzCV-1)

 Wastrivirus

Sanxia wastrivirus*

Sānxiá water strider virus 4 (SxWSV-4)

*Asterisks denote type species. Please note that viruses are real objects that are assigned to concepts that are called taxa. Species, genera, families, and orders are taxa. Taxon names are always italicized and always begin with a capital letter. Virus names, on the other hand, are not italicized and are not capitalized, except if the name or a name component is a proper noun. This column lists the virus names with their correct (lack of) capitalization

1Includes: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (PPMV-1); 2synonym: GH-M74a virus; 3synonym: murine parainfluenza virus 1; 4synonym: bat paramyxovirus; 5synonym: simian virus 5; 6synonym: porcine rubulavirus; 7synonyms: avian pneumovirus, turkey rhinotracheitis virus; 8synonyms: citrus leprosis virus nuclear type, citrus necrotic spot virus; 9synonym: wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (WBRV1); 10synonyms: Egtved virus, Paralichthys olivaceus rhabdovirus; 11synonym: tobacco stunt virus

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Laura Bollinger (NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD, USA) for critically editing the manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported in part through Battelle Memorial Institute’s prime contract with the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) under Contract no. HHSN272200700016I (Y.C., J.H.K.). This work was also funded in part under Contract no. HSHQDC-15-C-00064 awarded by DHS S&T for the management and operation of the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), a federally funded research and development center (V.W.); National Institutes of Health (NIH) contract HHSN272201000040I/HHSN27200004/D04 and Grant R24AI120942 (N.V., R.B.T.); and intramural funds of the US Department of Health and Human Services to the US National Library of Medicine (E.V.K. and Y.I.W.). This work was also supported by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), Scottish Government and Welsh Government (Grant no. SV3500) (A.R.F.).

Compliance with ethical standards

The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the US Department of the Army, the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T), or of the institutions and companies affiliated with the authors. In no event shall any of these entities have any responsibility or liability for any use, misuse, inability to use, or reliance upon the information contained herein. The US departments do not endorse any products or commercial services mentioned in this publication.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and ImmunologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Laboratorio de RabiaInstituto de Diagnóstico y Referencias EpidemiológicosMexico CityMexico
  3. 3.Animal and Plant Health AgencyWeybridgeUK
  4. 4.Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Institute for Biomedical SciencesGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  5. 5.United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious DiseasesFrederickUSA
  6. 6.Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  7. 7.Australian Animal Health LaboratoryCSIRO Health and BiosecurityGeelongAustralia
  8. 8.Department of Epidemiology, Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  9. 9.The University of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  10. 10.Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick), Division of Clinical Research (DCR)National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH)FrederickUSA
  11. 11.Arthropod-Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical SciencesColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  12. 12.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  13. 13.Department of Anthropology and McGill School of EnvironmentMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  14. 14.Wildlife Conservation SocietyBronxUSA
  15. 15.Section of Social Systems Evolution, Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  16. 16.University of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  17. 17.Avian Disease Research DivisionAnimal and Plant Quarantine AgencyGimcheonRepublic of Korea
  18. 18.Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious DiseasesNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  19. 19.Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food InnovationThe University of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia
  20. 20.Department of Botany and Plant Pathology and Center for Genome Research and BiocomputingOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  21. 21.Institute of VirologyPhilipps University MarburgMarburgGermany
  22. 22.Department of Crop SciencesUniversity of IllinoisChicagoUSA
  23. 23.Robert Koch InstitutBerlinGermany
  24. 24.School of Life SciencesUniversity of WarwickCoventryUK
  25. 25.Department of Molecular MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  26. 26.National Center of MicrobiologyCarlos III Institute of HealthMadridSpain
  27. 27.World Health OrganizationGenevaSwitzerland
  28. 28.Department of ViroscienceErasmus Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands
  29. 29.Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, WHO Collaborating Centre for Rabies Surveillance and ResearchGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  30. 30.Department of Biology, Center for Genomics and Systems BiologyNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  31. 31.Public Health EnglandSalisburyUK
  32. 32.Hakubi Center for Advanced ResearchKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  33. 33.College of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary and Life SciencesMurdoch UniversityMurdochAustralia
  34. 34.State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, The Provincial Key Lab of Plant Pathology of Húběi Province, College of Plant Science and TechnologyHuázhōng Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  35. 35.Department of ZoologyMakerere UniversityKampalaUganda
  36. 36.Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious DiseasesUniversité LavalQuebec CityCanada
  37. 37.Institute of Plant Science and ResourcesOkayama UniversityKurashikiJapan
  38. 38.National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of MedicineNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  39. 39.Department of MicrobiologyInstitut PasteurParisFrance
  40. 40.US Geological Survey Western Fisheries Research CenterSeattleUSA
  41. 41.Department of Molecular BiosciencesNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  42. 42.Howard Hughes Medical InstituteNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  43. 43.Department of MicrobiologyIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA
  44. 44.Centre International de Recherches Médicales de FrancevilleInstitut de Recherche pour le DéveloppementFrancevilleGabon
  45. 45.Zoonotic Infectious Diseases UnitKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  46. 46.Department of Veterinary Population Medicine and Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA
  47. 47.Department of Microbiology and National Emerging Infectious Diseases LaboratoriesBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  48. 48.Universidad de Chile Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y PecuariasSantiagoChile
  49. 49.Novosibirsk State University, NovosibirskNovosibirsk OblastRussia
  50. 50.Department of Laboratory MedicineUniversity of California at San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  51. 51.Institute of VirologyUniversity of Veterinary MedicineViennaAustria
  52. 52.Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of MedicineMohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health SciencesDubaiUnited Arab Emirates
  53. 53.Department of Virology and ImmunologyTexas Biomedical Research InstituteSan AntonioUSA
  54. 54.Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Parasitic DiseasesNational Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory ServiceJohannesburgSouth Africa
  55. 55.Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical SciencesTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  56. 56.Centre for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical SciencesThe Queen’s University of BelfastBelfastUK
  57. 57.National Center for Immunization and Respiratory DiseasesCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  58. 58.Institute of Virology, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  59. 59.School of Cellular and Molecular MedicineUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  60. 60.CBR DivisionDstlSalisburyUK
  61. 61.Division of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Natural ResourcesUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  62. 62.Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical SciencesColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  63. 63.Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture ScienceWeymouth, DorsetUK
  64. 64.Division of Global EpidemiologyHokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis ControlSapporoJapan
  65. 65.Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Center for Tropical Diseases and Institute for Human Infections and ImmunityThe University of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  66. 66.Institute of Biomedical ScienceUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  67. 67.Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences (inFront)Kyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  68. 68.Institut Pasteur, Unité des Stratégies Antivirales, WHO Collaborative Centre for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers and Arboviruses, OIE Reference Laboratory for RVFV and CCHFVParisFrance
  69. 69.Institut Pasteur de GuinéeConakryGuinea
  70. 70.Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious DiseasesCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  71. 71.Universidad Austral de Chile Facultad de Ciencias VeterinariasValdiviaChile
  72. 72.Molecular Basis of Viral Pathogenicity, CIRI, INSERM U1111-CNRS, UMR5308Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Ecole Normale Supérieure de LyonLyonFrance
  73. 73.National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures CenterFrederickUSA
  74. 74.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia
  75. 75.Departments of Molecular Microbiology and Pathology and ImmunologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  76. 76.Programme in Emerging Infectious DiseasesDuke-NUS Medical SchoolSingaporeSingapore
  77. 77.College of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  78. 78.University of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  79. 79.Department of Entomology and Plant PathologyNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  80. 80.State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  81. 81.State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Department of Zoonoses, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and PreventionChinese Center for Disease Control and PreventionBeijingChina

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