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Archives of Virology

, Volume 163, Issue 6, pp 1479–1488 | Cite as

Molecular evolution and phylodynamics of hepatitis B virus infection circulating in Iran

  • Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani
  • Seyed Amir Malekpour
  • Mehdi Norouzi
  • Fatemeh Ramezani
  • Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
  • Vahdat Poortahmasebi
  • Mehdi Sadeghi
  • Seyed Moayed Alavian
  • Mohadeseh Zarei-Ghobadi
  • Azam Ghaziasadi
  • Hadi Karimzadeh
  • Reza Malekzadeh
  • Masood Ziaee
  • Farshid Abedi
  • Behrooz Ataei
  • Majid Yaran
  • Babak Sayad
  • Hamid Reza Jahantigh
  • Mohammad hossein Somi
  • Gholamreza Sarizadeh
  • Ismail Sanei-Moghaddam
  • Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei
  • Hossein Keyvani
  • Ebrahim Kalantari
  • Zahra Fakhari
  • Babak Geravand
  • Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri
Original Article

Abstract

Previous local and national Iranian publications indicate that all Iranian hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains belong to HBV genotype D. The aim of this study was to analyze the evolutionary history of HBV infection in Iran for the first time, based on an intensive phylodynamic study. The evolutionary parameters, time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA), and the population dynamics of infections were investigated using the Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain (BMCMC). The effective sample size (ESS) and sampling convergence were then monitored. After sampling from the posterior distribution of the nucleotide substitution rate and other evolutionary parameters, the point estimations (median) of these parameters were obtained. All Iranian HBV isolates were of genotype D, sub-type ayw2. The origin of HBV is regarded as having evolved first on the eastern border, before moving westward, where Isfahan province then hosted the virus. Afterwards, the virus moved to the south and west of the country. The tMRCA of HBV in Iran was estimated to be around 1894, with a 95% credible interval between the years 1701 and 1957. The effective number of infections increased exponentially from around 1925 to 1960. Conversely, from around 1992 onwards, the effective number of HBV infections has decreased at a very high rate. Phylodynamic inference clearly demonstrates a unique homogenous pattern of HBV genotype D compatible with a steady configuration of the decreased effective number of infections in the population in recent years, possibly due to the implementation of blood donation screening and vaccination programs. Adequate molecular epidemiology databases for HBV are crucial for infection prevention and treatment programs.

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest to be declared.

Ethical conduct of research

The authors of this study have followed the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki for all human or animal experimental investigations.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Seyed Amir Malekpour
    • 3
    • 4
  • Mehdi Norouzi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fatemeh Ramezani
    • 1
  • Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
    • 5
  • Vahdat Poortahmasebi
    • 1
  • Mehdi Sadeghi
    • 6
  • Seyed Moayed Alavian
    • 7
  • Mohadeseh Zarei-Ghobadi
    • 1
  • Azam Ghaziasadi
    • 1
  • Hadi Karimzadeh
    • 8
  • Reza Malekzadeh
    • 9
  • Masood Ziaee
    • 10
  • Farshid Abedi
    • 11
  • Behrooz Ataei
    • 12
  • Majid Yaran
    • 12
  • Babak Sayad
    • 13
  • Hamid Reza Jahantigh
    • 5
  • Mohammad hossein Somi
    • 14
  • Gholamreza Sarizadeh
    • 15
  • Ismail Sanei-Moghaddam
    • 16
  • Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei
    • 17
  • Hossein Keyvani
    • 18
  • Ebrahim Kalantari
    • 19
  • Zahra Fakhari
    • 1
  • Babak Geravand
    • 20
  • Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Hepatitis B Lab, Department of Virology, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Research Center for Clinical Virology, Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, College of ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  4. 4.School of Biological SciencesInstitute for Research in Fundamental SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases Division, Faculty of Medicine, Immunology Research CenterMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  6. 6.National Institute of Genetic Engineering and BiotechnologyTehranIran
  7. 7.Middle East Liver Diseases Center (MELD Centers)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  8. 8.Virology InstituteUniversity of DuisburgEssenGermany
  9. 9.Digestive Disease Research CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  10. 10.Department of Internal Medicine, Vali-e-Asr HospitalBirjand University of Medical SciencesBirjandIran
  11. 11.Department of Infectious DiseaseBirjand University of Medical SciencesBirjandIran
  12. 12.Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research CenterIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  13. 13.Kermanshah Liver Diseases and Hepatitis Research CenterKermanshahIran
  14. 14.Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  15. 15.Educational Region of Khozestan Blood Transfusion OrganizationAhvazIran
  16. 16.Department of GastroenterologyZahedan University of Medical SciencesZahedanIran
  17. 17.Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research CenterGuilan University of Medical SciencesRashtIran
  18. 18.Department of Virology, School of MedicineIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  19. 19.Gholhack Medical LaboratoryTehranIran
  20. 20.Islamic Azad University, South Tehran BranchTehranIran

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