Molecular evolution and phylodynamics of hepatitis B virus infection circulating in Iran
- 71 Downloads
Previous local and national Iranian publications indicate that all Iranian hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains belong to HBV genotype D. The aim of this study was to analyze the evolutionary history of HBV infection in Iran for the first time, based on an intensive phylodynamic study. The evolutionary parameters, time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA), and the population dynamics of infections were investigated using the Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain (BMCMC). The effective sample size (ESS) and sampling convergence were then monitored. After sampling from the posterior distribution of the nucleotide substitution rate and other evolutionary parameters, the point estimations (median) of these parameters were obtained. All Iranian HBV isolates were of genotype D, sub-type ayw2. The origin of HBV is regarded as having evolved first on the eastern border, before moving westward, where Isfahan province then hosted the virus. Afterwards, the virus moved to the south and west of the country. The tMRCA of HBV in Iran was estimated to be around 1894, with a 95% credible interval between the years 1701 and 1957. The effective number of infections increased exponentially from around 1925 to 1960. Conversely, from around 1992 onwards, the effective number of HBV infections has decreased at a very high rate. Phylodynamic inference clearly demonstrates a unique homogenous pattern of HBV genotype D compatible with a steady configuration of the decreased effective number of infections in the population in recent years, possibly due to the implementation of blood donation screening and vaccination programs. Adequate molecular epidemiology databases for HBV are crucial for infection prevention and treatment programs.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
No conflict of interest to be declared.
Ethical conduct of research
The authors of this study have followed the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki for all human or animal experimental investigations.
- 6.Kiesslich D, Crispim MA, Santos C, Ferreira Fde L, Fraiji NA, Komninakis SV, Diaz RS (2009) Influence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype on the clinical course of disease in patients coinfected with HBV and hepatitis delta virus. J Infect Dis 199(11):1608–1611. https://doi.org/10.1086/598955 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Ribeiro NR, Campos GS, Angelo AL, Braga EL, Santana N, Gomes MM, Pinho JR, De Carvalho WA, Lyra LG, Lyra AC (2006) Distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes among patients with chronic infection. Liver Int Off J Int Assoc Study Liver 26(6):636–642. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-3231.2006.01280.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Mohebbi SR, Amini-Bavil-Olyaee S, Zali N, Derakhshan F, Sabahi F, Zali MR (2009) An extremely aberrant subtype of hepatitis B virus genotype D in Iran. Hepat Mon 9(1):73–75Google Scholar
- 10.Norouzi M, Ramezani F, Khedive A, Karimzadeh H, Alavian S, Malekzadeh R, Montazeri G, Nejatizadeh A, Ziai M, Abedi F (2014) Hepatitis B virus genotype D is the only genotype circulating in Iranian chronic carriers, the unique pattern of genotypic homogeneity. J Gastroenterol Hepatol Res 3(9):1238–1243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Ramezani F, Alavian SM, Sadeghi A, Khedive A, Ghalichi L, Norouzi M, Karimzadeh H, Malekzadeh R, Montazeri G, Nejatizadeh A, Ziaee M, Abedi F, Ataei B, Yaran M, Sayad B, Somi MH, Sarizadeh G, Sanei-Moghaddam I, Mansour-Ghanaei F, Rafatpanah H, Keyvani H, Kalantari E, Saberfiroozi M, Rezaee R, Daram M, Mahabadi M, Goodarzi Z, Poortahmasebi V, Geravand B, Khamseh A, Mahmoodi M, Jazayeri SM (2015) Evolution of hepatitis B virus surface gene and protein among Iranian chronic carriers from different provinces. Iran J Microbiol 7(4):214–220PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 15.Khedive A, Norouzi M, Ramezani F, Karimzadeh H, Alavian SM, Malekzadeh R, Montazeri G, Nejatizadeh A, Ziaee M, Abedi F, Ataei B, Yaran M, Sayad B, Somi MH, Sarizadeh G, Sanei-Moghaddam I, Mansour-Ghanaei F, Rafatpanah H, Pourhosseingholi MA, Keyvani H, Kalantari E, Saberifiroozi M, Judaki MA, Ghamari S, Daram M, Mahabadi M, Fazeli Z, Goodarzi Z, Poortahmasebi V, Jazayeri SM (2013) Hepatitis B virus surface protein mutations clustered mainly in CTL immune epitopes in chronic carriers: results of an Iranian nationwide study. J Viral Hepat 20(7):494–501. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvh.12045 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Darriba D, Taboada GL, Doallo R, Posada D (2012) jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nat Methods 9(8):772–772. http://www.nature.com/nmeth/journal/v9/n8/abs/nmeth.2109.html#supplementary-information
- 29.Neisi N, Makvandi M, Samarbaf-Zadeh AR (2011) A study on genotypes of hepatitis B virus among hemodialysis patients in Khuzestan province. Jundishapur J Microbiol 4(2):65–70Google Scholar