Grapevine virus I, a putative new vitivirus detected in co-infection with grapevine virus G in New Zealand
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A novel virus, with characteristics of viruses classified within the genus Vitivirus, was identified from a sample of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay in New Zealand. The virus was detected with high throughput sequencing (small RNA and total RNA) and its sequence was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Its genome is 7507 nt long (excluding the polyA tail) with an organisation similar to that described for other classifiable members of the genus Vitivirus. The closest relative of the virus is grapevine virus E (GVE) with 65% aa identity in ORF1 (65% nt identity) and 63% aa identity in the coat protein (66% nt identity). The relationship with GVE was confirmed with phylogenetic analysis, showing the new virus branching with GVE, Agave tequilina leaf virus and grapevine virus G (GVG). A limited survey revealed the presence of this virus in multiple plants from the same location where the newly described GVG was discovered, and in most cases both viruses were detected as co-infections. The genetic characteristics of this virus suggest it represents an isolate of a new species within the genus Vitivirus and following the current nomenclature, we propose the name “Grapevine virus I”.
This work was funded and supported by the Rod Bonfiglioli Scholarship from New Zealand Winegrowers Inc., and The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited Wine Research programme, funded by the Ministry for Business, Innovation and Employment Strategic Science Investment Fund. The Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre funded the small RNA sequencing and analysis (PBCRC2064). We would like to thank our Plant & Food Research colleagues: John Fletcher for the collection of samples, Sandi Keenan for her assistance in the sRNA extraction, and Kieren Arthur, and Dan Cohen as well as Mahmoud Khalifa (Damietta University, Egypt) for the useful comments on the manuscripts.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.