Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on replication of avian leukosis virus subgroup J in cell culture
- 204 Downloads
Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been reported to possess antiviral activity against several viruses. In the current study, we assessed the antiviral activity effect of LiCl on ALV-J infection in CEF cells by using real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, IFA and p27 ELISA analysis. Our results showed that both viral RNA copy number and protein level decreased significantly in a dose and time dependent manner. Time-course analysis revealed that the antiviral effect was more pronounced when CEFs were treated at the post infection stage rather than at early absorption or pre-absorption stages. Further experiments demonstrated that LiCl did not affect virus attachment or entry, but rather affected early virus replication. We also found that inhibition of viral replication after LiCl treatment was associated with reduced mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results demonstrate that LiCl effectively blocked ALV-J replication in CEF cells and may be used as an antiviral agent against ALV-J.
The research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFD0500702), the Key Program of NSFC-Henan Joint Fund (U1604232), NCFC-RCUK-BBSRC (Grant No. 31761133002), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31772734), the Newton Fund Project on “UK-China Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases”, Chinese Special Fund for Agro scientific Research in the Public Interest (201203055), the PAPD of the Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and the Jiangsu Co-innovation Centre for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses.
Kun Qian and Aijian Qin designed the study. Kun Qian, Xiaowei Cheng and Danyang Zhang carried out the experiments, analyzed the data, and drafted the manuscript. Aijian Qin supervised all the experiments and participated in the data analysis. Hongxia Shao, Yongxiu Yao and Venugopal Nair discussed and prepared the final report. All of the authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interests
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
The experimental protocols for preparing primary chicken embryo fibroblasts were approved by the Animal Care and Protection Committee of Yangzhou University (reference number SYXX2012-0020).
- 2.Baril M, Es-Saad S, Chatel-Chaix L, Fink K, Pham T, Raymond VA, Audette K, Guenier AS, Duchaine J, Servant M, Bilodeau M, Cohen E, Grandvaux N, Lamarre D (2013) Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a new role of a WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway as negative regulator of virus-induced innate immune responses. PLoS Pathog 9(6):e1003416CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 5.Chen Y, Yan H, Zheng H, Shi Y, Sun L, Wang C, Sun J (2015) Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by porcine parvovirus. Adv Virol 160(4):1015–1020Google Scholar
- 8.De Meyer I, Martinet W, Van Hove CE, Schrijvers DM, Hoymans VY, Van Vaeck L, Fransen P, Bult H, De Meyer GR (2011) Inhibition of inositol monophosphatase by lithium chloride induces selective macrophage apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaques. Br J Pharmacol 162(6):1410–1423CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 9.Ding Y, Dou J, Teng Z, Yu J, Wang T, Lu N, Wang H, Zhou C (2014) Antiviral activity of baicalin against influenza A (H1N1/H3N2) virus in cell culture and in mice and its inhibition of neuraminidase. Adv Virol 159(12):3269–3278Google Scholar
- 16.Li X, Lin W, Chang S, Zhao P, Zhang X, Liu Y, Chen W, Li B, Shu D, Zhang H, Chen F, Xie Q (2016) Isolation, identification and evolution analysis of a novel subgroup of avian leukosis virus isolated from a local Chinese yellow broiler in South China. Adv Virol 161(10):2717–2725Google Scholar
- 31.Wang X, Zhao P, Cui ZZ (2012) Identification of a new subgroup of avian leukosis virus isolated from Chinese indigenous chicken breeds. Chin J Virol 28(6):609–614Google Scholar
- 32.Wu X, Qian K, Qin A, Shen H, Wang P, Jin W, Eltahir YM (2010) Recombinant avian leukosis viruses of subgroup J isolated from field infected commercial layer chickens with hemangioma and myeloid leukosis possess an insertion in the E element. Vet Res Commun 34(7):619–632CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 33.Zhao FR, Xie YL, Liu ZZ, Shao JJ, Li SF, Zhang YG, Chang HY (2017) Lithium Chloride inhibits early stages of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in vitro. J Med VirolGoogle Scholar
- 34.Zhou P, Fu X, Yan Z, Fang B, Huang S, Fu C, Hong M, Li S (2015) Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus. Adv Virol 160(11):2799–2805Google Scholar