Archives of Virology

, Volume 163, Issue 3, pp 771–776 | Cite as

Characterization of a novel single-stranded RNA mycovirus related to invertebrate viruses from the plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae

  • M. Carmen Cañizares
  • Francisco J. López-Escudero
  • Encarnación Pérez-Artés
  • María D. García-Pedrajas
Annotated Sequence Record


Fungal viruses, also known as mycoviruses, are widespread in all major groups of fungi. Mycoviruses from plant pathogens can reduce the virulence of their host fungus and have therefore potential as biological control agents. This has spurred the identification of novel mycoviruses in plant pathogens, research which is greatly contributing to our understanding of these organisms. In this work, we report the characterization of a novel monopartite mycovirus from Verticillium dahliae, the main causal agent of Verticillium wilt. This novel mycovirus, which we termed Verticillium dahliae RNA virus 1 (VdRV1), was identified in three different isolates of V. dahliae collected in olive growing areas of the Guadalquivir valley, southern Spain. We determined that the VdRV1 genome is a positive (+) single-stranded (ss) RNA, 2631 nucleotides in length, containing two open reading frames. VdRV1 showed few similarities with known mycoviruses, only with a group of unassigned (+) ssRNA mycoviruses which are related to plant viruses classified within the family Tombusviridae. However, phylogenetic analysis revealed that VdRV1 and the unassigned (+) ssRNA mycoviruses have a closer relationship with recently reported invertebrate viruses. This result indicates that as more viral sequences become available, the relationships of mycoviruses with viruses from other hosts should be reexamined. Additionally, the work supports the hypothesis of a heterogeneous origin for mycoviruses.



This research was supported by Grants AGL2013-48980-R and AGL2016-80048-R from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, co-funded by the European Union (FEDER funds). The authors would like to thank Dr Scott E. Gold for his editorial review of this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards


Financial support for this study was provided by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through Grants AGL2013-48980-R and AGL2016-80048-R, co-funded by the European Union (FEDER funds).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies of animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

705_2017_3644_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (48 kb)
Supplementary Figure 1: Identification of two putative transmembrane domains at the N-terminus of the VdRV1 ORF1-encoded protein using the TMHMM Server v. 2.0 program. (PPTX 47 kb)
705_2017_3644_MOESM2_ESM.pptx (209 kb)
Supplementary Figure 2: Multiple amino acid sequence alignment of the RdRp encoded by the three variants of VdVR1 and similar RdRps from other viruses. The horizontal lines above the amino acid areas define the conserved motifs. The red square box highlights a GDN domain which is unusual in other RdRps from (+) ssRNA viruses but rather found in non-segmented (-) stranded RNA viruses. Black shading indicates identical or similar amino acid residues in all RdRp sequences included, dark grey shading indicates a conservation of residues below 100% and above 80%, and light grey below 80% and above 60%. Numbers in brackets correspond to the number of amino acid residues separating the motifs. The abbreviations of the virus names are as follows: DaRV1, Diaporthe ambigua RNA virus 1; MoVA, Magnaporthe oryzae virus A; MpSRV3, Macrophomina phaseolina single-stranded RNA virus 3; SLaSSRV1, Soybean leaf-associated ssRNA virus 1; SLaSSRV2, soybean leaf-associated ssRNA virus 2; SLaSSRV3, soybean leaf-associated ssRNA virus; SsULV1, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum umbra-like virus 1; TBSV, tomato bushy stunt virus; VdRV1, Verticillium dahliae RNA virus 1. (PPTX 209 kb)
705_2017_3644_MOESM3_ESM.pptx (90 kb)
Supplementary Figure 3: The RdRps of VdVR1 and related mycoviruses and invertebrate viruses contain unique motifs highly conserved in the RdRps of the plant tombusviruses. Black shading indicates identical or similar amino acid residues in all RdRp sequences included, dark grey shading indicates a conservation of residues below 100% and above 80%, and light grey shading indicates below 80% and above 60%. (PPTX 90 kb)
705_2017_3644_MOESM4_ESM.pptx (42 kb)
Supplementary Figure 4: Predicted secondary structure of the VdVR1 5’ and 3’ UTRs. Secondary structures of the 29 nucleotide 5’ UTR and the 181 nucleotide 3’ UTR were predicted using the mfold program. (PPTX 42 kb)
705_2017_3644_MOESM5_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (DOCX 14 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea “La Mayora”-Universidad de Málaga-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IHSM-UMA-CSIC), Estación Experimental “La Mayora”Algarrobo-CostaSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de AgronomíaUniversidad de CórdobaCórdobaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Crop ProtectionInstituto de Agricultura Sostenible, IAS-CSICCórdobaSpain

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