Monitoring of aerosols and their temporal evolution is very important for climate and air quality studies. In this study, we present a climatology of aerosol optical and microphysical properties over a continental southeastern European area based on 9 years of observations from a Cimel sun-photometer operating at Magurele (Romania) in the framework of AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). The site is characterized by high intra-annual and inter-annual variability of the total aerosol optical depth (AOD), which has two peaks, during March and August. For half year, from May to November, Magurele is affected by the transport of aerosols from the nearby city of Bucharest, since the dominant winds are from this direction. Thus, the predominant is the fine mode of aerosols. The high inter-annual and intra-annual variability of Angstrom exponent (440–870 nm) indicates the presence of aerosols of different sizes. Negative statistically significant trends at all AOD wavelengths, the order of 20–40% per decade, have been calculated for the 9-year period of study (2007–2016). These trends are mostly attributed to the reduction of the fine mode particles, showing that the implementation of the EU regulations for the decrease of particulate matter emissions in Bucharest has been beneficial.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Benkhalifa J, Leon JF, Chaabane M (2017) Aerosol optical properties of western Mediterranean basin from multi-year AERONET data. J Atmospheric Sol-Terr Phys 164:222–228. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JASTP.2017.08.029
Bodeker GE, Kremser S (2015) Techniques for analyses of trends in gruan data. Atmos Meas Tech 8(4):1673–1684. https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-8-1673-2015
Bohren C, Huffman D (1983) Absorption and scattering of light by small particles. Research supported by the university of Arizona and Institute of Occupational and Environmental Health. Wiley-Interscience, New York, 541 pp
Cazacu M, Timofte A, Unga F, Albina B, Gurlui S (2015) AERONET data investigation of the aerosol mixtures over Iasi area, one-year time scale overview. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 153:57–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.09.004
Cazacu MM, Tudose O, Boscornea A, Buzdugan L, Timofte A, Nicolae D (2017) Vertical and temporal variation of aerosol mass concentration at Magurele–Romania during EMEP/PEGASOS campaign. Romanian Rep Phys 69:706
Dubovik O, King MD (2000) A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements. J Geophys Res 311(105):20,673–20,696. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD900282
Dubovik O, Sinyuk A, Lapyonok T, Holben BN, Mishchenko M, Yang P, Eck TF, Volten H, Noz OM, Veihelmann B, van der Zande WJ, Leon J, Sorokin M, Slutsker I (2006) Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust. J Geophys Res 111:D11,208. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006619
Eck TF, Holben BN, Reid JS, Xian P, Giles DM, Sinyuk A, Smirnov A, Schafer JS, Slutsker I, Kim J, Koo J, Choi M, Kim KC, Sano I, Arola A, Sayer AM, Levy RC, Munchak LA, O’Neill NT, Lyapustin A, Hsu NC, Randles CA, Silva AMD, Buchard V, Govindaraju RC, Hyer E, Crawford JH, Wang P, Xia X (2018) Observations of the interaction and transport of fine mode aerosols with cloud and/or fog in northeast Asia from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and satellite remote sensing. J Geophys Res 123:5560–5587. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028313
Fountoulakis I, Bais AF, Fragkos K, Meleti C, Tourpali K, Zempila MM (2016) Short- and long-term variability of spectral solar uv irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece: effects of changes in aerosols, total ozone and clouds. Atmos Chem Phys 16(4):2493–2505. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-2493-2016
Galytska E, Danylevsky V, Hommel R, Burrows JP (2018) Increased aerosol content in the atmosphere over Ukraine during summer 2010. Atmos Meas Tech 330(11):2101–2118. https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-11-2101-2018
Geicu A, Candea Eds I (2008) Clima Romaniei (The climate of Romania). Administratia Nationala de Meteorologie, Editura Academiei Romane, ISBN 978-973-27-1674-8, 365 pp (in Romanian)
Georgoulias AK, Alexandri G, Kourtidis KA, Lelieveld J, Zanis P, Poschl U, Levy R, Amiridis V, Marinou E, Tsikerdekis A (2016) Spatiotemporal variability and contribution of different aerosol types to the aerosol optical depth over the eastern Mediterranean. Atmos Chem Phys 16:13,853–13,884. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-13853-2016
Gilbert RO (1987) Statistical methods for environmental pollution monitoring. 339 John Wiley & Sons, 320 pp
Giles DM, Holben BN, Eck TF, Sinyuk A, Smirnov A, Slutsker I, Dickerson RR, Thompson AM, Schafer JS (2012) An analysis of AERONET aerosol absorption properties and classifications representative of aerosol source regions. J Geophys Res 343(117):D17,203. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD018127
Giles DM, Sinyuk A, Sorokin MS, Schafer JS, Smirnov A, Slutsker I, Eck TF, Holben BN, Lewis J, Campbell J, Welton EJ, Korkin S, Lyapustin A (2018) Advancements in the aerosol robotic network (aeronet) version 3 database—automated near real-time quality control algorithm with improved cloud screening for sun photometer aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. Atmos Meas Tech Discuss 2018:1–78. https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2018-272
Hirsch RM, Slack JR, Smith RA (1982) Techniques of trend analysis for monthly water quality data. Water Resour Res 18(1):107–121. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR018i001p00107
Holben BN, Eck TF, Slutsker I, Tanre D, Buis JP, Setzer A, Vermote E, Reagan JA, Kaufman YJ, Nakajima T, Lavenu F, Jankowiak I, Smirnov A (1998) AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization. Remote Sens Environ 66:1–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00031-5
Holben BN, Tanre D, Smirnov A, Eck TF, Slutsker I, Abuhassan N, Newcomb WW, Schafer JS, Chatenet B, Lavenu F, Kaufman YJ, Castle JV, Setzer A, Markham B, Clark D, Frouin R, Halthore R, Karneli A, O’Neill NT, Pietras C, Pinker RT, Voss K, Zibordi G (2001) An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET. J Geophys Res 106(D11):12,067–12,097. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD900014
Holben BN, Eck TF, Slutsker I, Smirnov A, Sinyuk A, Schafer J, Giles D, Dubovik O (2006) Aeronet’s Version 2.0 quality assurance criteria. Proc. SPIE Remote Sens. Atmos. Clouds 6408:64080Q. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.706524
Israelevich P, Ganor E, Alpert P, Kishcha P, Stupp A (2012) Predominant transport paths of Saharan dust over the Mediterranean Sea to Europe. J Geophys Res 117:D02,205. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD016482
Korkin S, Lyapustin A, Sinyuk A, Holben B (2016) A new code sord for simulation of polarized light scattering in the earth atmosphere. vol 9853, DOI https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2223423
Maghrabi AH, Alotaibi RN (2017) Long-term variations of AOD from an AERONET station in the central Arabian Peninsula. Theor Appl Climatol 134:1015–1026. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-017-2328-x
Marinou E, Amiridis V, Binietoglou I, Tsikerdekis A, Solomos S, Proestakis E, Konsta D, Papagiannopoulos N, Tsekeri A, Vlastou G, Zanis P, Balis D, Wandinger U, Ansmann A (2017) Three-dimensional evolution of Saharan dust transport towards Europe based on a 9-year EARLINET-optimized CALIPSO dataset. Atmos Chem Phys 17:5893–5919. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-5893-2017
Meier AC, Schonhardt A, Bosch T, Richter A, Seyler A, Ruhtz T, Constantin DE, Shaiganfar R, Wagner T, Merlaud A, Van Roozendael M, Belegante L, Nicolae D, Georgescu L, Burrows JP (2017) High-resolution airborne imaging DOAS measurements of NO2 above Bucharest during AROMAT. Atmos Meas Tech 10:1831–1857. https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-1831-2017
Mihai L, Stefan S (2011) Temporal variation of aerosol optical properties at Magurele. J Atmos Ocean Technol 28:1307–1316. https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JTECHA1532.1
Nemuc A, Belegante L, Radulescu R (2011) One year of sunphotometer measurements in Romania. Rom J Phys 56(3–4):550–562. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028313
Nicolae D, Nemuc A, Muller D, Talianu C, Vasilescu J, Belegante L, Kolgotin A (2013) Characterization of fresh and aged biomass burning events using multiwavelength Raman lidar and mass spectrometry. J Geophys Res Atmos 390 118(7):2956–2965. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50324
O’Neill NT, Eck TF, Smirnov A, Holben BN, Thulasiraman S (2003) Spectral discrimination of coarse and fine mode optical depth. J Geophys Res 108(4559):393. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002975
Papayannis A, Nicolae D, Kokkalis P, Binietoglou I, Talianu C, Belegante L, Tsaknakis G, Cazacu M, Vetres I, Ilic L (2014) Optical, size and mass properties of mixed type aerosols in Greece and Romania as observed by synergy of lidar and sunphotometers in combination with model simulations: a case study. Sci Total Environ 500–501:277–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.08.101
Pappalardo G, Amodeo A, Apituley A, Comeron A, Freudenthaler V, Linne H, Ansmann A, Bosenberg J, D’Amico G, Mattis I, Mona L, Wandinger U, Amiridis V, Alados-Arboledas L, Nicolae D, Wiegner M (2014) Earlinet: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network. Atmos Meas Tech 7(8):2389–2409. https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-7-2389-2014
Ramanathan V, Crutzen PJ, Kiehl JT, Rosenfeld D (2001) Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle. Science 294(5549):2119–2124. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1064034
Siomos N, Balis DS, Voudouri KA, Giannakaki E, Filioglou M, Amiridis V, Papayannis A, Fragkos K (2018) Are EARLINET and AERONET climatologies consistent? The case of Thessaloniki, Greece. Atmos Chem Phys 18:11885–11903. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-11885-2018
Sioris CE, Abboud I, Fioletov VE, McLinden CA (2017) AEROCAN, the Canadian sub-network of AERONET: aerosol monitoring and air quality applications. Atmos Environ 167:444–457. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ATMOSENV.2017.08.044
Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) (2014) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis: Working Group I contribution to the Fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 1535 pp. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324
Tomasi C, Fuzzi S, Kokhanovsky A (2017) Atmospheric aerosols: life cycles and effects on air quality and climate, vol 1. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, ISBN: 978-3-527-33645-6, 704 pp
The authors would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions that improved the manuscript.
The current work has been implemented in the framework of the European Unions H2020—TWINN-2015—Twinning under grant agreement no. 692014, project ECARS (East European Centre for Atmospheric Remote Sensing). Funding was also provided by the Romanian Ministry of Research and Innovation throughout the Core National Program, Proj. No. 33N/16.03.2018.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Carstea, E., Fragkos, K., Siomos, N. et al. Columnar aerosol measurements in a continental southeastern Europe site: climatology and trends. Theor Appl Climatol 137, 3149–3159 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-019-02805-z