Characteristics of long-lasting haze episodes observed in Seoul, South Korea, for 2009–2014
- 304 Downloads
The meteorological, physical, chemical, and optical characteristics of long-lasting haze in Seoul were studied. Four episodes were observed between 2009 and 2014, all in winter. PM10 mass concentration (PM10), chemical species, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were analyzed along with the synoptic meteorological conditions. During the episodes, the temporal variations of the PM10 generally proceeded from the west along the Yellow Sea. The ground-based AOD was also high in Seoul and other sites. High AOD (MODIS) distributions were observed to move from China to Korea. The high sulfate concentration, along with the high sulfur oxidation ratio value of the third and fourth episodes (Eps. 3 and 4), respectively, corroborated the possible long-range transport of air pollutants. Stagnant meteorological conditions were a reason for the occurrence of long-lasting hazes. An anticyclone system had a dominant influence on the Korean peninsula during all episodes. The air mass over China was able to rise, and that over Korea was more stagnant in terms of climatology except Ep. 2. In addition to transport from outside, locally emitted air pollutants contributed to the PM10 partly due to the stagnant conditions, during which diurnal variations in NO2 and nitrates showed similar peak times during Eps. 3 and 4. Analysis of the episodes consistently showed that the long-lasting haze episodes were influenced by both the long-range transport of air pollutants from outside Seoul, mostly from China, and the accumulation of air pollutants that were locally emitted and transformed.
KeywordsLong-lasting haze PM10 mass concentration Seoul
This study has been supported by the “Research and Development for Meteorological Services (NIMS-2016-3100)” of the National Institute of Meteorological Sciences (NIMS). We wish to thank the AERONET PI at Beijing-CAMS for the Sunphotometer data.
- Brook RD, Franklin B, Cascio W, Hong Y, Howard G, Lipsett M, Luepker R, Mittleman M, Samet J, Smith SC Jr, Tager I, Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science of the American Heart Association (2004) Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the expert panel on population and prevention science of the American Heart Association. Circulation 109:2655–2671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M, Kistler R, Collins W, Deaven D, Gandin L, Iredell M, Saha S, White G, Woollen J, Zhu Y, Leetmaa A, Reynolds R, Chelliah M, Ebisuzaki W, Higgins W, Janowiak J, Mo KC, Ropelewski C, Wang J, Jenne R, Joseph D (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 77:437–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- KMA, Korea Meteorological Administration (2016) Report of Global Atmospheric Watch 2015 (in Korean)Google Scholar
- Lee DK, Kim HR, Hong SY (1998) Heavy rainfall over Korea during 1980-1990. Kor J Atmos Sci 1:32–50Google Scholar
- MOE, Ministry of Environment (2012) White paper of environment, Seoul (in Korean)Google Scholar
- MOE, Ministry of Environment (2016) Annual report of air quality in Korea, 2015 (in Korean)Google Scholar
- Yang YR, Liu XG, Qu Y, An JL, Jiang R, Zhang YH, Sun YL, Wu ZJ, Zhang F, Xu WQ, Ma QX (2015) Characteristics and formation mechanism of continuous hazes in China: a case study during the autumn of 2014 in the North China Plain. Atmos Chem Phys 15:8165–8178. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-8165-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zheng GJ, Duan FK, Su H, Ma YL, Cheng Y, Zheng B, Zhang Q, Huang T, Kimoto T, Chang D, Pöschl U, Cheng YF, He KB (2015) Exploring the severe winter haze in Beijing: the impact of synoptic weather, regional transport and heterogeneous reactions. Atmos Chem Phys 15:2969–2983. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-2969-2015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar