The frequency of extreme weather events, which cause severe crop losses, is increasing. This study investigates the relationship between crop losses and extreme weather events in central Taiwan from 2003 to 2015 and determines the main factors influencing crop losses. Data regarding the crop loss area and meteorological information were obtained from government agencies. The crops were categorised into the following five groups: ‘grains’, ‘vegetables’, ‘fruits’, ‘flowers’ and ‘other crops’. The extreme weather events and their synoptic weather patterns were categorised into six and five groups, respectively. The data were analysed using the z score, correlation coefficient and stepwise regression model. The results show that typhoons had the highest frequency of all extreme weather events (58.3%). The largest crop loss area (4.09%) was caused by two typhoons and foehn wind in succession. Extreme wind speed coupled with heavy rainfall is an important factor affecting the losses in the grain and vegetable groups. Extreme wind speed is a common variable that affects the loss of ‘grains’, ‘vegetables’, ‘fruits’ and ‘flowers’. Consecutive extreme weather events caused greater crop losses than individual events. Crops with long production times suffered greater losses than those with short production times. This suggests that crops with physical structures that can be easily damaged and long production times would benefit from protected cultivation to maintain food security.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Agriculture and Food Agency, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan; AFA) (2016) Rice production in Taiwan 105(2):3–4 (in Chinese)
Aggarwal PK (2008) Global climate change and Indian agriculture: impacts, adaptation and mitigation. Indian J Agric Sci 78(11):911–919
Anyamba A, Small JL, Britch SC, Tucker CJ, Pak EW, Reynolds CA, Crutchfield J, Linthicum KJ (2014) Recent weather extremes and impacts on agricultural production and vector-borne disease outbreak patterns. PLoS One 9(3):e92538. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092538
Blanc E, Strobl E (2016) Assessing the impact of typhoons on rice production in the Philippines. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 55(4):993–1007. https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0214.1
Botzen WJW, Bouwer LM, van den Bergh JCJM (2010) Climate change and hailstorm damage: empirical evidence and implications for agriculture and insurance. Resour Energy Econ 32(3):341–362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reseneeco.2009.10.004
Bowerman BL, O’Connell RT (1990) Linear statistical models: an applied approach, 2nd edn. PWS-KENT Publishing Company, Boston, p 1024
Central Weather Bureau, Ministry of Transportation and Communications, R.O.C. (Taiwan; CWB) (2008a) State of weather during Sep. 21–30. Agrometeorol Bull 55(27):1 (in Chinese)
Central Weather Bureau, Ministry of Transportation and Communications, R.O.C. (Taiwan; CWB) (2008b) Farming activities, agrometeorology and disasters Sep. 11–20. Agrometeorol Bull 55(26):1 (in Chinese)
Central Weather Bureau, Ministry of Transportation and Communications, R.O.C. (Taiwan; CWB) (2009) 1897~2008 statistics of climate changes in Taiwan. CWB, Taipei, p 77 (in Chinese)
Chattopadhyay N (2011) Climate change and food security in India. In: Lal R, Sivakumar MVK, Faiz MA, Mustafizur Rahman AHM, Islam KR (eds) Climate change and food security in South Asia. Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, pp 229–250. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9516-9_15
Chou MD, Wu CH, Kau WS (2011) Large-scale control of summer precipitation in Taiwan. J Clim 24(19):5081–5093. https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JCLI4057.1
Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan; CAEY) (2016a) Agricultural knowledge. http://kmweb.coa.gov.tw/jigsaw2010/Index.aspx. Accessed 23 June 2016 (in Chinese)
Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan; CAEY) (2016b) Agricultural statistics: crop losses in Taiwan (1140-00-01). http://agrstat.coa.gov.tw/sdweb/public/official/OfficialInformation.aspx. Accessed 7 June 2016 (in Chinese)
Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan; CAEY) (2006) Agricultural products prices in agricultural products wholesales market in Taiwan. http://amis.afa.gov.tw/main/Main.aspx. Accessed 16 June 2017 (in Chinese)
Dilley M, Chen RS, Deichmann U, Lerner-Lam A, Arnold M, Agwe J, Buys P, Kjekstad O, Lyon B, Yetman G (2005) Natural disaster hotspots: a global risk analysis. The World Bank Hazard Management Unit, Washington, D.C, p 132
Du X, Jin X, Yang X, Yang X, Xiang X, Zhou Y (2015) Spatial-temporal pattern changes of main agriculture natural disasters in China during 1990-2011. J Geogr Sci 25(4):387–398. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-015-1175-x
Fontana G, Toreti A, Ceglar A, De Sanctis G (2015) Early heat waves over Italy and their impacts on durum wheat yields. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 15(7):1631–1637. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-1631-2015
Fuhrer J, Beniston M, Fischlin A, Frei C, Goyette S, Jasper K, Pfister C (2006) Climate risks and their impact on agriculture and forests in Switzerland. Clim Chang 79(1–2):79–102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-006-9106-6
Gobin A, Tarquis AM, Dalezios NR (2013) Weather-related hazards and risks in agriculture preface. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 13(10):2599–2603. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-13-2599-2013
Hartmann DL, Tank AK, Rusticucci M, Alexander LV, Brönnimann S, Charabi Y, Dentener FJ, Dlugokencky EJ, Easterling DR, Kaplan A, Soden BJ, Thorne PW, Wild M, Zhai PM (2013) Observations: Atmosphere and Surface. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, pp 159–254
Harvey CA, Rakotobe ZL, Rao NS, Dave R, Razafimahatratra H, Rabarijohn RH, Rajaofara H, MacKinnon JL (2014) Extreme vulnerability of smallholder farmers to agricultural risks and climate change in Madagascar. Phil Trans R Soc B 369(1639):20130089. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0089
Huang JC, Yu CK, Lee JY, Cheng LW, Lee TY, Kao SJ (2012) Linking typhoon tracks and spatial rainfall patterns for improving flood lead time predictions over a mesoscale mountainous watershed. Water Resour Res 48:W09540. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011WR011508
IPCC (2012) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Plattner G-K, Allen SK, Tignor M, Midgley PM (eds) A special report of working groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, p 582
IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: synthesis report. In: Pachauri RK, Meyer LA (eds) Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Core writing team. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, p 151
Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Muller E (1988) Applied regression analysis and other multivariable methods. 2nd Duxbury Press, Belmont, p 718
Lesk C, Rowhani P, Ramankutty N (2016) Influence of extreme weather disasters on global crop production. Nature 529(7584):84–87. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature16467
Llano MP, Vargas W (2016) Climate characteristics and their relationship with soybean and maize yields in Argentina, Brazil and the United States. Int J Climatol 36(3):1471–1483. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4439
Masutomi Y, Iizumi T, Takahashi K, Yokozawa M (2012) Estimation of the damage area due to tropical cyclones using fragility curves for paddy rice in Japan. Environ Res Lett 7(1):014020. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/1/014020
Mavromatis T (2015) Crop-climate relationships of cereals in Greece and the impacts of recent climate trends. Theor Appl Climatol 120(3–4):417–432. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-014-1179-y
Navidi WC (2008) Statistics for engineers and scientists, 2nd edn. Boston, US, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, p 901
Philip B (2003) Global greenhouse affects air pressure. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/news030317-6. http://www.nature.com/news/2003/030320/full/news030317-6.html. Accessed 28 Aug 2017
Rao GP (2016) Weather extremes and plantation crops in the humid tropics. Mausam 67(1):251–258
Seneviratne SI, Nicholls N, Easterling D, Goodess CM, Kanae S, Kossin J, Luo Y, Marengo J, McInnes K, Rahimi M, Reichstein M, Sorteberg A, Vera C, Zhang X (2012) Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment. In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Plattner G-K, Allen SK, Tignor M, Midgley PM (eds) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. a special report of working groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, pp 109–230
Strahler AH, Strahler AN (1998) Introducing physical geography. Wiley, New York, p 567
Stephens DJ, Lyons TJ (1998) Rainfall-yield relationships across the Australian wheatbelt. Aust J Agric Res 49(2):211–224. https://doi.org/10.1071/A96139
Su SH, Kuo HC, Hsu LH, Yang YT (2012) Temporal and spatial characteristics of typhoon extreme rainfall in Taiwan. J Meteor Soc Japan 90(5):721–736. https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2012-510
Su YJ, Cheng ML, Wang JH (2013) Spatial analysis of crop losses caused by natural disasters. Taiwan Agr Econ Rev 18(2):73–119
Tack J, Barkley A, Nalley LL (2015) Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112(22):6931–6936. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1415181112
Trnka M, Brazdil R, Mozny M, Štěpánek P, Dobrovolný P, Zahradníček P, Balek J, Semerádová D, Dubrovský M, Hlavinka P, Eitzinger J (2015) Soil moisture trends in the Czech Republic between 1961 and 2012. Int J Climatol 35(13):3733–3747. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4242
Tu JY, Chou C (2013) Changes in precipitation frequency and intensity in the vicinity of Taiwan: typhoon versus non-typhoon events. Environ Res Lett 8(1):014023. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014023
Van der Waals JE, Steyn JM, Franke AC, Haverkort AD (2016) Grower perceptions of biotic and abiotic risks of potato production in South Africa. Crop Prot 84:44–55
Wijeratne MA (1996) Vulnerability of Sri Lanka tea production to global climate change. Water Air Soil Pollut 92(1–2):87–94. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-1053-4_8
Wilks DS (2011) Statistical methods in the atmospheric sciences, 3rd edn. Oxford, UK, Elsevier, p 676
Wu CC, Kuo YH (1999) Typhoons affecting Taiwan: current understanding and future challenges. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 80:67–80
Zahradnicek P, Trnka M, Brazdil R, Mozny M, Stepanek P, Hlavinka P, Žalud Z, Malý A, Semerádová D, Dobrovolný P, Dubrovský M, Řezníčková L (2015) The extreme drought episode of August 2011–May 2012 in the Czech Republic. Int J Climatol 35(11):3335–3352. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4211
Zhang JQ, Hayakawa S, Yamamoto H, Okada N, Tatano H (2002) Comparisons of agricultural damages by typhoon 9117 9119 and 9918. Jpn J Crop Sci 71(2):239–249
The authors are grateful to the Taiwan Agriculture and Food Agency Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, the Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, the Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute and the Central Weather Bureau for providing meteorological and agricultural data.
• The loss of vegetable group was clearly correlated with extreme weather.
• Typhoons contributed to the variable crop loss patterns of ‘grains’ and ‘vegetables’.
• The crop loss where consecutive extreme weather events occurred was great.
• The loss of crops with longer production time periods was great.
• Protected cultivation should be considered for crops with great loss.
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Lai, LW. The relationship between extreme weather events and crop losses in central Taiwan. Theor Appl Climatol 134, 107–119 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-017-2261-z