The inter-annual variations and the long-term trends of monthly air temperatures in Iraq over the period 1941–2013

Abstract

Mean annual and monthly averages of mean (Tmean), maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) air temperature from seven stations in Iraq were analysed to detect the inter-annual variation, long-term temporal and spatial trends distribution over the period 1941–2013. Due to non-homogeneous problems, this period has been divided into two short separated periods (1941–1980 and 1995–2013), in order to compute temperature trends. In this context two statistical tests were used: linear regression and Mann-Kendall. The time series of mean annual temperature indicate the current warming period over Iraq identical with the global warming, which has started since the middle of seventh decade of the last century. The 2010 was the warmest year in all stations. Three distinct inter-annual temperature variation patterns were observed. These were probably the effects of micro-scale and meso-scale factors. The first one represents central and northern Iraq. The second represents the south of Iraq and Kirkuk station and the third one is a characteristic for eastern Iraq. Temperature trend analysis revealed that there are general upward trends with the strongest warming trends identified in the summer months which are around 89 % of the total significant monthly trends. Spatially, in both periods the southern region of Iraq is most affected by the warming trend in Tmean and Tmax. When considering Tmin, the southern and northern regions both are affected by warming with more pronounced trend intensity in the northern stations. No significant trend occurs Hai station in both periods and Baghdad has the still less trend value. In the first period the highest rise of Tmean and Tmax values are observed in July and June in Nasiriya station at 0.61 °C/decade and 0.63 °C/decade, respectively and in Mosul station for Tmin in August is 1.41 °C/decade. Moreover, in the period from 1995 to 2013, the highest warming trend of Tmean and Tmax were in Hai station for March at 1.48 °C/decade and at 1.85 °C/decade, respectively. Baghdad station experienced the highest significant trend for Tmin in August at 1.89 °C/decade.

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    . For more information about the NAO values see (The Climate Data Guide).

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Correspondence to Khamis Daham Muslih.

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Muslih, K.D., Błażejczyk, K. The inter-annual variations and the long-term trends of monthly air temperatures in Iraq over the period 1941–2013. Theor Appl Climatol 130, 583–596 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-016-1915-6

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Keywords

  • Temperature Trend
  • Iraq
  • North Atlantic Oscillation
  • Warming Trend
  • Significant Upward Trend