Hail suppression effectiveness for varying solubility of natural aerosols in water
- 185 Downloads
This sensitivity study examined the impact of natural aerosol on the results obtained by numerical cloud seeding experiments focused on hail suppression on the ground. A main concern was investigating the effects of the solubility of the natural aerosol on unseeded and seeded cloud simulations. A numerical model with a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme was used for this purpose. The numerical model calculated the mass and number concentrations of the following seven microphysical categories: cloud water, rain, cloud ice, snow, graupel, frozen raindrops and hail. The solubility values of the natural aerosol in water were varied, and the rain and hail production in clouds and the corresponding surface precipitation were analysed in unseeded and seeded cases. The effectiveness of hail suppression on the ground is reduced in atmospheric environments with natural aerosols that are less soluble in water. A low solubility of natural aerosol in water can result in overseeding. The sensitivity study showed that environments with predominantly soluble aerosol particles (such as sodium chloride) were suitable for hail suppression with a simultaneous increase in surface rain.
This research was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Serbia under Grant no. 176013.
- Abshaev GK, Sulakvelidze II, Burtsev LM, Fedchenko MK, Jekamukhov AM, Abshaev BK, Kuznetsov AM, Malkarova AD, Tebuev PA, Nesmeyanov II, Shakirov IN, Shevela GF (2006) Development of rocket and artillery technology for hail suppression. In: Achievements in weather modification. Department of Atmospheric studies, Abu Dhabi:109–127Google Scholar
- Ćurić M, Janc D, Vučković V (1998) On the sensitivity of cloud microphysics under influence of cloud drop size distribution. Atmos Res 47–48:1–14Google Scholar
- Fletcher NH (1962) The physics of rainclouds, 1st edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 386Google Scholar
- Gradshteyn IS, Ryzhik IM (2007) Table of integrals, series and products. Academic Press, New York, p 1171Google Scholar
- Hu Z, He G (1988) Numerical simulation of microphysical processes in cumulonimbus—part I: microphysical model. Acta Meteorol Sin 2:471–489Google Scholar
- Jaenicke R (1993) Tropospheric Aerosol. In: Hobbs PV (ed) Aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 1–31Google Scholar
- Kim CK, Yum SS, Oh S-N, Nam J-C, Chang K-H (2005) A feasibility study of winter orographic cloud seeding experiments in the Korean Peninsula. J Korean Meteor Soc 41(6):997–1014Google Scholar
- Kovačević N, Ćurić M (2013) The impact of the hailstone embryos on simulated surface precipitation. Atmos Res 132–133:154–163Google Scholar
- Krauss TW (2003) Aircraft seeding technology and some outstanding issues of hail suppression Meeting of experts on hail suppression (in collaboration with Roshydromet), World Meteorological Organization, pp 57–61 (WMP 41, WMO/TD 1233)Google Scholar
- Pruppacher HR, Klett JD (1997) Microphysics of clouds and precipitation, 2nd edn. Kluwer, Dordrecht, p 954Google Scholar
- Wang G, Lou X, Hu Z, You L, Feng D, Zhang J, Shi A, Li S, Guo E, Wang Y, Fang W, Shi Y, Sun J (2006) Main achievements of Institute of Weather Modification. Department of Atmospheric studies, Abu Dhabi:131–141Google Scholar