Pollen morphology of Persicaria section Cephalophilon (Polygonaceae)

Abstract

Pollen morphology of 19 taxa in Persicaria section Cephalophilon and four related taxa in the genus Koenigia was examined. Pollen grains shed as a monad were oblate to subprolate in shape (P/E = 0.50–1.20), small to large in size (13.44–51.16 μm), and tricolpate, octocolpate, or pantoporate. Three types of exine ornamentation were identified: (I) reticulate (P. sect. Cephalophilon), (II) reticulate with microechinae (Koenigia delicatula), and (III) microechinate (studied taxa of Koenigia except K. delicatula). The quantitative pollen characteristics analyzed using principal component analysis showed diagnostic importance among the taxa. The comprehensive consideration of pollen characteristics (aperture type, pollen size, and detailed exine ornamentation) is systematically informative, particularly at the series level of P. sect. Cephalophilon. Furthermore, the results also support the separation of some taxa of uncertain taxonomic affinities between Koenigia and P. sect. Cephalophilon. Orbicules were absent in all taxa of P. sect. Cephalophilon but were consistently found in Koenigia. The examined orbicules were spherical with a psilate surface, and the studied orbicule characteristics provided additional evidence to clarify the taxonomic position of some taxa of Koenigia. The orbicule and pollen morphology, especially aperture types, has proven to be a useful diagnostic characteristic in P. sect. Cephalophilon and related taxa, and their systematic importance is further discussed in this study.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. Ayodele AE (2005) The morphology and taxonomic significance of pollen in the West-African Polygonaceae. Thaiszia 15:143–153

    Google Scholar 

  2. Dulberger R (1992) Floral polymorphisms and their functional significance in the heterostylous syndrome. In: Barrett SCH (ed) Evolution and function of heterostyly monographs on theoretical and applied genetics. Springer, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  3. Erdtman G (1960) The acetolysis method: a revised description. Svensk Bot Tidskr 54:561–564

    Google Scholar 

  4. Fan DM, Chen JH, Meng Y, Wen J, Huang JL, Yang YP (2013) Molecular phylogeny of Koenigia L. (Polygonaceae: Persicarieae): implications for classification, character evolution and biogeography. Molec Phylogen Evol 69:1093–1100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2013.08.018

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Freeman CC, Reveal JL (2005) Polygonaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds) Flora of North America, vol. 14, pp 216–601. Oxford University Press, New York

  6. Galasso G, Banfi E, De Mattia F, Grassi F, Sgorbati S, Labra M (2009) Molecular phylogeny of Polygonum L. s.l. (Polygonoideae, Polygonaceae), focusing on European taxa: preliminary results and systematic considerations based on rbcL plastidial sequence data. Atti Soc Ital Sci Nat Mus Civico Storia Nat Milano 150: 113–148

    Google Scholar 

  7. Gross H (1913) Remarques sur les Polygonées l’Asie Orientale. Bull Acad Int Geogr Bot 23:7–32

    Google Scholar 

  8. Haraldson K (1978) Anatomy and taxonomy in Polygonaceae subfam. Polygonoideae Meissn. emend Jaretzky. Symb Bot Upsal 22:1–95

    Google Scholar 

  9. Hedberg O (1946) Pollen morphology in the genus Polygonum L. s.lat. and its taxonomic significance. Svensk Bot Tidskr 40:371–414

    Google Scholar 

  10. Hedberg O (1997) The genus Koenigia L. emend. Hedberg (Polygonaceae). Bot J Linn Soc 24:295–330. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1997.tb01999.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Hong SP (1994) Systematics of the genus Aconogonon (Polygonaceae – Persicarieae) in Himalaya and adjacent regions. Korean J Pl Taxon 24:195–213. https://doi.org/10.11110/kjpt.1994.24.3.195

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Hong SP, Chung DH, Lee ST (1987) A palynotaxonomic study of the Korean Persicaria species. Korean J Pl Taxon 17:1–12. https://doi.org/10.11110/kjpt.1987.17.1.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Hong SP, Hedberg O (1990) Parallel evolution of aperture numbers and arrangement in the genus Koenigia, Persicaria and Aconogonon (Polygonaceae). Grana 29:177–184. https://doi.org/10.1080/00173139009427750

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Hong SP, Lee ST (1983) A palynotaxonomic study of the Korean Polygonaceae. Korean J Pl Taxon 13:63–76. https://doi.org/10.11110/kjpt.1983.13.2.063

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Hong SP, Ronse Decraene LP, Smets E (1998) Systematic significance of tepal surface morphology in tribes Persicarieae and Polygoneae (Polygonaceae). Bot J Linn Soc 127:91–116. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1998.tb02091.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Hong SP, Oh IC, Ronse Decraene LP (2005) Pollen morphology of the genera Polygonum s. str. and Polygonella (Polygoneae: Polygonaceae). Pl Syst Evol 254:13–30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-005-0334-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Huysmans S, El-Ghazaly G, Nilsson S, Smets E (1997) Systematic value of tapetal orbicules: a preliminary survey of the Cinchonoideae (Rubiaceae). Canad J Bot 75:815–826. https://doi.org/10.1139/b97-091

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Huysmans S, El-Ghazaly G, Smets E (1998) Orbicules in angiosperms: morphology, function, distribution, and relation with tapetum types. Bot Rev 64:240–272. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02856566

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Huysmans S, Verstraete B, Smets E, Chatrou LW (2010) Distribution of orbicules in Annonaceae mirrors evolutionary trend in angiosperms. Pl Ecol Evol 143:199–211. https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2010.438

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Kim ST, Donoghue MJ (2008) Molecular phylogeny of Persicaria (Persicarieae, Polygonaceae). Syst Bot 33:77–86. https://doi.org/10.1600/036364408783887302

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Kong MJ, Hong SP (2018a) Comparative achene morphology of Persicaria sect. Cephalophilon and related taxa (Polygonaceae). Korean J Pl Taxon 48:134–142. https://doi.org/10.11110/kjpt.2018.48.2.134

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Kong MJ, Hong SP (2018b) The taxonomic consideration of floral morphology in the Persicaria sect. Cephalophilon (Polygonaceae). Korean J Pl Taxon 48:185–194. https://doi.org/10.11110/kjpt.2018.48.3.185

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Kong MJ, Hong SP (2019) Leaf micromorphology of the Persicaria sect. Cephalophilon (Polygonaceae) and its systematic re-evaluation. Phytotaxa 391:167–184. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.391.3.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Lamb Frye AS, Kron KA (2003) rbcL Phylogeny and character evolution in Polygonaceae. Syst Bot 28:326–332. https://doi.org/10.1043/0363-6445-28.2.326

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Lau TC, Stephenson AG (1993) Effects of soli nitrogen on pollen production, pollen grain size, and pollen performance in Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae). Amer J Bot 80:763–768. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537-2197.1993.tb15292.x

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Lee ST, Kim JG, Hong SP (1985) Pollen surface pattern and its taxonomic significance of the Korean Polygonaceae pollen. Korean J Pl Taxon 15:37–48. https://doi.org/10.11110/kjpt.1985.15.1.037

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Li AJ, Kao T, Mao Z, Liu Y (1998) Polygonaceae. In: Li AJ (ed) Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae, vol 25(1). Science Press, Beijing, pp 1–209

    Google Scholar 

  28. Li AJ, Bao B, Grabovskava-Borodina AE, Hong SP, McNeill J, Mosyakin SL, Ohba H, Park CW (2003) Polygonaceae. In: The Flora of China Editorial Committee (eds) Flora of China, vol. 5. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Saint Louis, pp 277–350

  29. Marinho RC, Mendes-Rodrigues C, Bonetti AM, Oliveira PE (2014) Pollen and stomata morphometrics and polyploidy in Eriotheca (Malvaceae-Bombacoideae). Pl Biol 16:508–511. https://doi.org/10.1111/plb.12135

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Meisner CF (1832) Synopsis Polygonearum. In: Wallich N (ed) Plantae Asiaticae Rariores 3. Treuttel and Würtz, London, pp 53–65.

  31. Moon HK (2018) The phylogenetic potential of orbicules in angiosperms. Korean J Pl Taxon 48:9–23. https://doi.org/10.11110/kjpt.2018.48.1.9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Moon HK, Hong SP (2015) Morphological traits of gynodioecious Persicaria amphibia (Polygonaceae). Phytotaxa 219:133–143. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.219.2.3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Moon HK, Vinckier S, Smets E, Huysmans S (2008a) Comparative pollen morphology and ultrastructure of Mentheae subtribe Nepetinae (Lamiaceae). Rev Palaeobot Palynol 149:174–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2007.12.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Moon HK, Vinckier S, Smets E, Huysmans S (2008b) Palynological evolutionary trends within the tribe Mentheae with special emphasis on subtribe Menthinae (Nepetoideae: Lamiaceae). Pl Syst Evol 275:93–108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-008-0042-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Nowicke JW, Skvarla JJ (1979) Pollen morphology: the potential influence in higher order systematics. Ann Missouri Bot Gard 66:633–700. https://doi.org/10.2307/2398914

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Paul P, Chowdhury M (2020) Pollen morphology of selected Indian species from subfamily Polygonoidae (Polygonaceae). Biologia 75:1083–1095. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-020-00449-3

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Punt W, Hoen PP, Blackmore S, Nilsson S, Le Thomas A (2007) Glossary of pollen and spore terminology. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 143:1–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2006.06.008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. R Development Core Team (2020) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/

    Google Scholar 

  39. Reddy NP, Bahadur B, Kumar PV (1977) Heterostyly in Polygonum chinense. J Genetics 63:79–82. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02984278

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Reitsma T (1969) Size modifications of recent pollen under treatments. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 9:175–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6667(69)90003-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Ronse Decraene LP, Hong SP, Smet E (2000) Systematic significance of fruit morphology and anatomy in tribes Persicarieae and Polygoneae (Polygonaceae). Bot J Linn Soc 134:301–337. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2000.tb02356.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Ruggiero F, Bedini G (2018) Systematic and morphologic survey of orbicules in allergenic angiosperms. Aerobiologia 34:405–422. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10453-018-9522-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Sanchez A, Schuster T, Burke J, Kron K (2011) Taxonomy of Polygonoideae (Polygonaceae): a new tribal classification. Taxon 60:151–160

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Schuster TM, Reveal JL, Bayly MJ, Kron KA (2015) An updated molecular phylogeny of Polygonoideae (Polygonaceae): Relationships of Oxygonum, Pteroxygonum, and Rumex, and a new circumscription of Koenigia. Taxon 64:1188–1208. https://doi.org/10.12705/646.5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995) Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. Freeman and Company, New York

    Google Scholar 

  46. Song JH, Moon HK, Hong SP (2016) Pollen morphology of the tribe Sorbarieae (Rosaceae). Pl Syst Evol 302:853–869. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-016-1303-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Song JH, Moon HK, Oak MK, Hong SP (2017a) Phylogenetic evaluation of pollen and orbicule morphology in Rosaceae tribe Neillieae (subfamily Amygdaloideae). Bot J Linn Soc 183:439–453. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/bow019

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Song JH, Oak MK, Roh HS, Hong SP (2017b) Morphology of pollen and orbicules in the tribe Spiraeeae (Rosaceae) and its systematic implications. Grana 56:351–367. https://doi.org/10.1080/00173134.2016.1274334

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Takhtajan A (2009) Flowering Plants, 2nd edn. Springer, New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9609-9

    Google Scholar 

  50. Thiers B (2020) [continuously updated] Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium, Bronx. https://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/

    Google Scholar 

  51. Timson J (1965) A study of hybridization in Polygonum section Persicaria. Bot J Linn Soc 59:155–161. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1965.tb00054.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Verstraete B, Groeninckx I, Smets E, Huysmans S (2011) Phylogenetic signal of orbicules at family level: Rubiaceae as case study. Taxon 60:742–757. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.603010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Verstraete B, Moon HK, Smets E, Huysmans S (2014) Orbicules in flowering plants: a phylogenetic perspective on their form and function. Bot Rev 80:107–134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12229-014-9135-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Vinckier S, Smets E (2001) The potential role of orbicules as a vector of allergens. Allergy 56:1129–1136. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1398-9995.2001.00172.x

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Walker JW, Doyle JA (1975) The basis of angiosperm phylogeny: palynology. Ann Missouri Bot Gard 62:664–723. https://doi.org/10.2307/2395271

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Wang JX, Feng ZJ (1994) A study on the pollen morphology of the genus Polygonum in China. Acta Phytotax Sin 32:219–231 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  57. Wodehouse RP (1931) Pollen grains in the identification and classification of plants VI. Polygonaceae. Amer J Bot 58:749–764. https://doi.org/10.2307/2435790

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Yasmin G, Khan MA, Shaheen N, Hayat MQ, Zafar M, Ahmad M (2010) Pollen morphological diversity in selected species of Persicaria Mill. (Family; Polygonaceae). J Med Pl Res 4:862–870. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR09.448

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Yurteseva OV, Severova EE, Bovina IY (2014) Pollen morphology and taxonomy of Atraphaxis (Polygoneae, Polygonaceae). Pl Syst Evol 300:749–766. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-013-0917-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Zhao DP, Wang KM, Hou YT (2012) Phylogeny of Polygonum sect. Cephalophilon (Polygonaeae) inferred from the chloroplast trnL-F, rbcL and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences. Bull Bot Res Harb 32:77–83. https://doi.org/10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.013 (in Chinese)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Zhou ZZ, Zhang XP, Xu RX (2004) Pollen morphology of Koenigia from China. Acta Phytotax Sin 42:513–523 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  62. Zhu LT, Lu FJ, Hou YT, Li FZ (2007) Micro-morphology of leaf epidermis and its taxonomic significance of Polygonum section Cephalophilon. J Wuhan Bot Res 25:136–142 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to our colleagues, and the directors of the herbaria of K, KHUS, KUN, PE, and WU. We also thank editor and the two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions to substantially improve our manuscript.

Funding

The work was supported by grants from the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Sciences and Technology [Grant Numbers NRF-2018R1D1A1A09083715] to S.-P. Hong.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Suk-Pyo Hong.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Handling Editor: Ferhat Celep.

Supplementary Information

Information on Electronic Supplementary Material

Information on Electronic Supplementary Material

Online Resource 1. Voucher specimens that are examined in the present study.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kong, MJ., Song, JH. & Hong, SP. Pollen morphology of Persicaria section Cephalophilon (Polygonaceae). Plant Syst Evol 307, 16 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-020-01738-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Orbicules
  • Persicaria sect. Cephalophilon
  • Persicarieae
  • Phylogeny
  • Polygonoideae
  • Principal component analysis