Odontarrhena stridii (Brassicaceae), a new Nickel-hyperaccumulating species from mainland Greece

Abstract

Odontarrhena is a taxonomically difficult genus of the tribe Alysseae, including a number of critical species complexes in the Balkan Peninsula. One of these is O. baldaccii, which was previously included in the inconsistent taxon Alyssum fallacinum but recently shown to be distinct from it. In this paper, we analyzed the still uncertain taxonomic circumscription of O. baldaccii by a comparative analysis of the population from the type locality in Crete and other populations from mainland Greece, which were previously attributed to A. fallacinum or dubitatively included in O. baldaccii s.l. The results supported the separation of these mainland populations in a new distinct species, here described as Odontarrhena stridii, sp. nov. Plant habit, leaf shape and size and silicle shape were the major distinguishing morphological characters. Molecular data also suggested divergence between the two groups of populations, while supporting their phylogenetic affinity. The two species are diploid schizo-endemics with 2n = 16, allopatric distribution and specialization for serpentine soils. Shoot Ni concentrations well above 1000 µg g−1 dry weight were confirmed for the Cretan population of O. baldaccii and found for the first time in two populations of O. stridii, which is therefore a new hyperaccumulating species of the Balkan Mediterranean flora. An updated key to the Greek Odontarrhena taxa is provided.

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Acknowledgements

Authors wish to thank Arne Strid for sharing opinions and providing information on Odontarrhena in Greece. Isabella Bettarini provided valuable help during fieldwork and preparation of samples. The Curators of the herbaria mentioned in the Material and Method sections kindly allowed the study of their collections. Laura Vivona assisted with the preparation of figures. This research was supported by funds from Agronickel to C.G. and F.S., a FACCE SURPLUS project supported by H2020 ERA-NET Cofund, and from the Czech Science Foundation (Grant No. 19-06632S) to S.Š.

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Electronic supplementary material

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Online Resource 1

Table of character values measured on 10 specimens of O. baldaccii s.s. from Crete (Cr1-Cr10) and 15 specimens of O. baldaccii s.l. (= O. stridii) from three mainland populations (five each; Ke: Kedhros; Ka: Mt. Kallidromo; KX: Kato Xenia). (PDF 38 kb)

Online Resource 2

List of taxa and accessions included in the phylogenetic analysis, with origin, voucher (herbarium acronyms are according to Index Herbariorum) and GenBank accession numbers. (PDF 52 kb)

Online Resource 3

Chromosome metaphase plates of O. baldaccii s.s. from Crete, 2n = 16 (a), O. baldaccii s.l. (= O. stridii) from Kedhros, Thessaly, 2n = 16 (b), O. heldreichii from Katara Pass, north Pindus, 2n = 16 (c), O. chalcidica from Malakasi, north Pindus, 2n = 32 (d). (PDF 1885 kb)

Online Resource 4

Alignment of ITS-5.8S sequences used for the phylogenetic analysis. (NEX 23 kb)

Appendices

Appendix

List of examined specimens (paratypes) of Odontarrhena stridii L.Cecchi, Španiel & Selvi from Greece.

[Central Greece], prov. Fthiotis, Iti-Massiv, Umgebung von Neochorion, 1400 m. ü. M., felsdurchragte Bergweiden, reich an Astragalus und Eryngium. (…) Atlas Fl. Eur.: FH 1”, 20 Jun 1982, I. Hagemann, H. Scholz and W. Schwerz 227 (B!) • [Central Greece] “Nom. Fthiotidhos, Ep. Lokridhos: Mt. Kallidromon, 11 km NE-ENE of Amfiklia. Serpentine mountain called Palioanlias E of the road btw. The villages Modhion and Kallidromon. Rocky slopes with macchie and scattered Pinus halepensis, 600-900 m.”, 28 Aug 1982, P. Hartvig, R. Franzén and K. I. Christensen 10519 (B!) • [Central Greece] “Nom.Fokis, Ep.Parnassidhos, 1,8 km SO Pira (…) Wacholderhänge m.sehr trocknen Wiesen u.Schuttreißen/UTM 38°44′N, 22°17′E FH 1188 (…) 1140 m”, 30 May 1988, E. Willing 5336a, 5336b (B!) • [Central Greece] “Nom.Fokis, Ep.Lokridhos, Kallidhromos, 4,0 km SO Kallidhromo (Fth 62 d) (…9, Iti, oberhalb Pira (Fth 66) (…) 38°41′30″N, 22°41′E/Felsanriß unter Hartlaubgebüsch.Ser/UTM FH 48 (…) 1230 m”, 9 Jun 1991, E. Willing 14.955 (B!) • [Central Greece] “Nom.Fokis, Ep.Fthiotidhos, Iti, oberhalb Pira (Fth 66) (…)Wiesen m.Tannen u.Juniperus/38°44′30″N, 22°16′E/UTM FH 19 (…) 1230 m”, 11 Jun 1991, E. Willing 15.214 (B!) • [Central Greece] “Nom.Fokis, Ep.Dhoridhos, 3.1 km SSW Artotina (Fok 82 b) (…) Felsige Hangböschung unter Tannenwald, Sa/38°40′30″N, 22°0′30″E/UTM EH 8881 (…) 1340 m”, 17 Jun 1991, E. Willing 15.923 (B!) • [Central Greece] “Nom.Magnisia, Ep.Almirou, 1,9 km NO Porta-Gipfel (Mag 18 c) (…) Q.coccifera- Gebüsch, magere Krautfluren/39°15′N, 22°41′E/UTM FJ 4546 (…) 230 m”, 6 May 1993, E. Willing 24.169 (B!) • [Central Greece] “Nom.Magnisia, Ep.Almirou, Moni Xenias (Mag 19 b) (…) Trockene Serpentinhänge unter Q.coccifera-Gebüsch/39°5′N, 22°49′E/UTM FJ 5828 (…) 270–300 m”, 11 May 1993, E. Willing 25.115 (B!) • [Tessaglia] “Nom. and Ep. Kardhitsa: S of Khedros along road to Loutra Smokovou, alt. 240(-350) m, 39°11(-12.5)’N, 22°02′20″E. Rocky slopes and scree, serpentine”, 12 Jun 1995, W. Greuter and B. Zimmer, Greuter Pl. Graec. 24417 (B!) • [Central Greece] “Fokis, Ep. Dhoridhos/3,7 km SSW Artotina (Fok 121) (…) Tannenwald, feuchte Rinne, 1340 m/EH 88.80, 38°40′00″N, 22°1′00″E”, 29 Jun 1996, R. Eisenblätter and E. Willing 45.291a (B!) • [Central Greece] “Fokis, Ep. Dhoridhos/5,8 km SSW Artotina (Fok 120) (…) Krautfluren, Tannenwald, 1480 m/EH 87.88, 38°38′30″N, 22°1′00″E”, 29 Jun 1996, R. Eisenblätter and E. Willing 45.909 (B!) • [Central Greece] “Fthiotida, regione di Lamìa, al p.so di Fourka presso Domokos, 1000 m, mescolanza di calcare e serpentino”, 2 May 2001, M. Bigazzi. and F. Selvi s.n (FI 055058!) • [Central Greece] “Karditsa, SO Anavra (…) Krautfluren in Laubgebüsch, 350 m/Kar 207 a, EJ 93.55.14, 39°09′45″N, 22°06′04″E”, 28 May 2007, R. Willing and E. Willing 162.236 (B!) • [Central Greece] “Karditsa, SO Loutra Kaitsis (…) Felsfluren, Schuttfluren, 400 m/Kar 208, FJ 03.01.39, 39°07′52″N, 22°09′37″E”, 28 May 2007, R. Willing and E. Willing 162.293 (B!) • [Thessaly] “Larisa, SO Achillion (…) Q.coccifera- Gebüsch, trockene Krautfluren, 300 m/Lar 201, FJ 24.36.63, 39°15′27″N, 22°25′57″E”, 22 Mar 2008, R. Willing and E. Willing 174.013 (B!) • [Central Greece] “Fthiotis, SO Domokos (…) Felsige Krautfluren, Quelle, 495 m/Fth 412, FJ 12.37.11, 39°05′09″N, 22°18′28″E”, 24/04/2008, R. Willing and E. Willing 174.893, B! • [Thessaly] “Trikala, Khedros, ofioliti lungo la strada per Loutropigi, 180 m, 39°11.777′N, 22°02.052′E”, 5 Jun 2008, L. Cecchi and F. Selvi s.n. (FI 055056!, FI055057!) • [Thessaly] “Karditsa, oltre Kedros verso Loutropigi, pendii rocciosi di serpentino lungo la strada nella valle del torrente, 39°10.028′N, 22°02.587′E, 270 m. Serpentino”, 8 Aug 2018, F. Selvi and I. Bettarini s.n. ( FI 055800!) • [Thessaly] “Magnissia, Almiros, presso il monastero di Kato Xenia (Moni Xenia), rocce e brecce nelle radure di boscaglia aperta di Quercus coccifera, suolo serpentinoso, 39°05.474′N, 22°49.701′E, ca. 240 m”, 31 May 2019, F. Selvi and I. Bettarini s.n. (FI 056356!)

Information on Electronic Supplementary Materials

Online Resource 1. Table of character values measured on 10 specimens of Odontarrhena baldaccii s.s. from Crete (Cr1–Cr10) and 15 specimens of O. baldaccii s.l. (= O. baldaccii s.l.) from three mainland populations (five each; Ke: Kedhros; Ka: Mt. Kallidromo; KX: Kato Xenia).

Online Resource 2. List of taxa and accessions included in the phylogenetic analysis, with origin, voucher (herbarium acronyms are according to Index Herbariorum) and GenBank accession numbers.

Online Resource 3. Chromosome metaphase plates of Odontarrhena baldaccii s.s. from Crete, 2n = 16 (a), O. stridii (= baldaccii s.l.) from Kedhros, Thessaly, 2n = 16 (b), O. heldreichii from Katara Pass, north Pindus, 2n = 16 (c), O. chalcidica from Malakasi, north Pindus, 2n = 32 (d).

Online Resource 4. Alignment of ITS-5.8S sequences used for the phylogenetic analysis.

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Cecchi, L., Španiel, S., Bianchi, E. et al. Odontarrhena stridii (Brassicaceae), a new Nickel-hyperaccumulating species from mainland Greece. Plant Syst Evol 306, 69 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-020-01687-3

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Keywords

  • Alyssum
  • Balkan flora
  • Cruciferae
  • Nickel-hyperaccumulators
  • Serpentine endemics