A rime ice-inspired bismuth-based flexible sensor for zinc ion detection in human perspiration

Abstract

A nature-inspired special structure of bismuth is newly presented as Zn ion sensing layer for high-performance electrochemical heavy metal detection sensor applications. The rime ice-like bismuth (RIBi) has been synthesized using an easy ex situ electrodeposition method on the surface of a flexible graphene-based electrode. The flexible graphene-based electrode was fabricated via simple laser-writing and substrate-transfer techniques. The Zn ion sensing performance of the proposed heavy metal sensor was evaluated by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry after investigating the effects of several parameters, such as preconcentration potential, preconcentration time, and pH of acetate buffer. The proposed RIBi-based heavy metal sensor demonstrated a good linear relationship between concentration and current in the range 100–1600 ppb Zn ions with an acceptable sensitivity of 106 nA/ppb·cm2. The result met the requirements in terms of common human perspiration levels (the average Zn ion concentration in perspiration is 800 ppb). In addition, the heavy metal sensor response to Zn ions was successfully performed in human perspiration samples as well, and the results were consistent with those measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Besides, the fabricated Zn ion sensor exhibited excellent selectivity, repeatability, and flexibility. Finally, a PANI-LIG-based pH sensor (measurement range: pH 4–7) was also integrated with the Zn ion sensor to form a single chip hybrid sensor. These results may provide a great possibility for the use of the proposed flexible sensor to realize wearable perspiration-based healthcare systems.

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Funding

This work was supported by the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the NRF grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIT) (NRF-2017M3A9F1031270) and the Technology Innovation Program (20000773, Development of nanomultisensors based on wearable patch for nonhematological monitoring of metabolic syndrome) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MI, Korea). The authors are grateful for the technical support and discussion of the Advanced Sensor and Energy Research (ASER) Laboratory group members of Kwangwoon University.

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Xing Xuan and Xue Hui have contributed equally to the work. Xing Xuan designed hybrid sensors. Xue Hui, Hyosang Yoon, and Sanghyuk Yoon helped to fabricate the hybrid electrodes. Xing Xuan and Xue Hui prepared the materials and performed the electrochemical experiments and results analysis, and Sanghyuk Yoon helped to do the data measurements and analysis. Xing Xuan and Hyosang Yoon managed and discussed drawing and plot the figures in the manuscript. Xing Xuan and Xue Hui completed the manuscript. Hyosang Yoon and Sanghyuk Yoon commented on the manuscript. Jae Yeong Park advised all research phases, provided technical guidance, and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Jae Yeong Park.

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Xuan, X., Hui, X., Yoon, H. et al. A rime ice-inspired bismuth-based flexible sensor for zinc ion detection in human perspiration. Microchim Acta 188, 97 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04752-x

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Keywords

  • Rime ice-inspired bismuth
  • Laser-induced graphene electrode
  • Flexible hybrid sensor
  • Zn ion detection
  • Human perspiration