Voltammetric determination of 4-nitrophenol using a glassy carbon electrode modified with a gold-ZnO-SiO2 nanostructure
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A nanostructured material of the type Au-ZnO-SiO2 is described that consists of ZnO and gold nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed into a silica matrix and used to construct a voltammetric sensor for 4-nitrophenol. The AuNPs and ZnO NPs are anchored onto the silica network which warrants the nanostructures to be stable in various environments. It also facilitates the electron transfer between the electrolyte and the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The properties of the nanostructure as a modifier for the GCE were investigated by energy dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that the nanostructure increases the surface area. Hence, the cathodic and anodic current in differential pulse voltammetry of 4-nitrophenol are considerably enhanced in comparison to a bare GCE. Under optimum conditions, the currents for oxidation and reduction are proportional to the concentration of 4-nitrophenol in the 0.05–3.5 μM and 0.01–1.2 μM concentration ranges, with 13.7 and 2.8 nM detection limits, respectively. The sensor has excellent sensitivity, fast response, long-term stability, and good reproducibility. It is perceived to be a valuable tool for monitoring 4-nitrophenol in real water samples.
KeywordsElectrochemical sensors 4-Nitrophenol ZnO-Au nanoparticles Hazardous materials Modified electrodes
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support provided by the Research Council of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
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