Microchimica Acta

, 185:292 | Cite as

Electrochemical determination of 2,4-dichlorophenol by using a glassy carbon electrode modified with molybdenum disulfide, ionic liquid and gold/silver nanorods

Original Paper
  • 111 Downloads

Abstract

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) was used as an electrically conductive skeleton and functionalized with an ionic liquid and gold/silver nanorods. The resulting composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy. The composites were used to modify a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to obtain a sensor for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The results show that the oxidation power and electrocatalytic activity of the modified GCE towards 2,4-DCP are enhanced compared to a bare GCE and other modified GCEs. Response is linear in the 0.01 to 50 μM 2,4-DCP concentration range, with a 2.6 nM detection limit. The sensor is highly sensitive and long-term stable. It was successfully applied to the determination of 2,4-DCP in spiked water samples and gave satisfactory recoveries.

Graphical abstract

Schematic of an electrochemical sensor for the differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) determination of 2,4-dichlorophenol. It is based on the use of an MoS2-ionic liquid-Au/Ag nanorod composite.

Keywords

Dichalcogenides Hydrothermal method Electrocatalytic activity Nanocomposites Chlorinated phenols 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the Program for Key Science and Technology Innovation Team in Shaanxi Province (No. 2014KCT-27).

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2018_2834_MOESM1_ESM.doc (489 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 489 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Mckinlay R, Plant JA, Bell JNB, Voulvoulis N (2008) Endocrine disrupting pesticides: implications for risk assessment. Environ Int 34:168–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chaliha S, Bhattacharyya KG, Paul P (2008) Catalytic destruction of 4-chlorophenol in water. CLEAN-Soil, Air, Water 36:488–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liang Y, Yu L, Yang R, Li X, Qu L, Li J (2017) High sensitive and selective graphene oxide/molecularly imprinted polymer electrochemical sensor for 2,4-dichlorophenol in water. Sensors Actuators B Chem 240:1330–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gao J, Liu L, Liu X, Zhou H, Huang S, Wang Z (2008) Levels and spatial distribution of chlorophenols-2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in surface water of China. Chemosphere 71:1181–1187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zheng C, Zhao J, Bao P, Gao J, He J (2011) Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of triclosan. J Chromatogr A 1218:3830–3836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Guo L, Lee HK (2012) Electro membrane extraction followed by low-density solvent based ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction combined with derivatization for determining chlorophenols and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1243:14–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huang X, Zhang Y, Mei M, Yuan D (2014) Preparation of monolithic fibers for the solid-phase microextraction of chlorophenols in water samples. J Sep Sci 37:1185–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rama MJR, Medina AR, Díaz AM (2003) A simple and straightforward procedure for monitoring phenol compounds in waters by using uv solid phase transduction integrated in a continuous flow system. Microchim Acta 141:143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hallaj T, Amjadi M (2016) Determination of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water samples using a chemiluminescence system consisting of graphene quantum dots, rhodamine b and cerium(iv) ion. Microchim Acta 183:1219–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen JR, Odenthal PM, Swartz AG, Floyd GC, Wen H, Luo KY, Kawakami RK (2013) Control of schottky barriers in single layer MoS2 transistors with ferromagnetic contacts. Nano Lett 13:3106–3110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yin ZY, Li H, Li H, Jiang L, Shi YM, Sun YH, Lu G, Zhang Q, Chen XD, Zhang H (2012) Single-layer MoS2 phototransistors. ACS Nano 6:74–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Voiry D, Yamaguchi H, Li J, Silva R, Alves DC, Fujita T, Chen M, Asefa T, Shenoy VB, Eda G, Chhowalla M (2013) Enhanced catalytic activity in strained chemically exfoliated WS2 nanosheets for hydrogen evolution. Nat Mater 12:850–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fang LX, Huang KJ, Liu Y (2015) Novel electrochemical dual-aptamer-based sandwich biosensor using molybdenum disulfide/carbon aerogel composites and Au nanoparticles for signal amplification. Biosens Bioelectron 71:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang GX, Bao WJ, Wang J, Lu QQ, Xia XH (2013) Immobilization and catalytic activity of horseradish peroxidase on molybdenum disulfide nanosheets modified electrode. Electrochem Commun 35:146–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang KJ, Liu YJ, Wang HB, Wang YY, Liu YM (2014) Sub-femtomolar dna detection based on layered molybdenum disulfide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, Au nanoparticle and enzyme multiple signal amplification. Biosens Bioelectron 55:195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ohno H (ed) (2005) Electrochemical aspects of ionic liquids. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Safavi A, Maleki N, Farjami E (2009) Fabrication of a glucose sensor based on a novel nanocomposite electrode. Biosens Bioelectron 24:1655–1660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kachoosangi RT, Musameh MM, Abu-Yousef I, Yousef JM, Kanan SM, Xiao L, Davies SG, Russell A, Compton RG (2009) Carbon nanotube-ionic liquid composite sensors and biosensors. Anal Chem 81:435–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Park SK, Yu SH, Woo S, Ha J, Shin J, Sung YE, Piao Y (2012) A facile and green strategy for the synthesis of MoS2 nanospheres with excellent li-ion storage properties. CrystEngComm 14:8323–8325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhou N, Li J, Chen H, Liao C, Chen L (2013) A functional graphene oxide-ionic liquid composites-gold nanoparticle sensing platform for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of Hg2+. Analyst 138:1091–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Samal AK, Sreeprasad TS, Pradeep T (2010) Investigation of the role of NaBH4, in the chemical synthesis of gold nanorods. J Nanopart Res 12:1777–1786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shi Y, Wang J, Wang C, Zhai TT, Bao WJ, Xu JJ, Chen HY (2015) Hot electron of Au nanorods activates the electrocatalysis of hydrogen evolution on MoS2 nanosheets. J Am Chem Soc 137:7365–7370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zanello P (2003) Inorganic electrochemistry: theory, practice and application. The Royal Society of Chemistry, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brown AP, Anson FC (1977) Cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric behavior of reactants confined to the electrode surface. Anal Chem 49:1589–1595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Laviron E (1974) Adsorption, autoinhibition and autocatalysis in polarography and in linear potential sweep voltammetry. J Electroanal Chem 52:355–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yin H, Zhou Y, Cui L, Liu X, Ai S, Zhu L (2011) Electrochemical oxidation behavior of bisphenol A at surfactant/layered double hydroxide modified glassy carbon electrode and its determination. J Solid State Electrochem 15:167–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Deiminiat B, Rounaghi GH, Arbab-Zavar MH, Razavipanah I (2017) A novel electrochemical aptasensor based on f-MWCNTs/AuNPs nanocomposite for label-free detection of bisphenol A. Sensors Actuators B Chem 242:158–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kong L, Huang S, Yue Z, Peng B, Li M, Zhang J (2009) Sensitive mediator-free tyrosinase biosensor for the determination of 2,4-dichlorophenol. Microchim Acta 165:203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Li J, Miao D, Yang R, Qu L, Harrington PDB (2014) Synthesis of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) functionalized graphene/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) nanocomposite and its application in electrochemical oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol. Electrochim Acta 125:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li S, Du D, Huang J, Tu H, Yang Y, Zhang A (2013) One-step electrodeposition of a molecularly imprinting chitosan/phenyltrimethoxysilane/Aunps hybrid film and its application in the selective determination of p-nitrophenol. Analyst 138:2761–2768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Li J, Li X, Yang R, Qu L, Harrington PB (2013) A sensitive electrochemical chlorophenols sensor based on nanocomposite of ZnSe quantum dots and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Anal Chim Acta 804:76–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhu X, Zhang K, Wang C, Guan J, Yuan X, Li B (2016) Quantitative determination and toxicity evaluation of 2,4-dichlorophenol using poly(eosin Y)/hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrode. Sci Rep 6:38657CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Earth Surface System and Environmental Carrying CapacityNorthwest UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.College of Urban and Environmental ScienceNorthwest UniversityXi’anChina
  3. 3.College of Chemistry and Material ScienceNorthwest UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations