Electrodes modified with 3D graphene composites: a review on methods for preparation, properties and sensing applications Review Article First Online: 07 May 2018 Received: 04 February 2018 Accepted: 14 April 2018 Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) porous networks of planar 2D graphene have attractive features with respect to sensing. These include a large electroactive surface area, good inner and outer surface contact with the analyte, ease of loading with (bio)catalysts, and good electrochemical sensitivity. 3D free-standing graphene can even be used directly as an electrode. This review (with 140 refs.) covers the progress made in the past years. Following an introduction into the field (including definitions), a large section is presented that covers methods for the synthesis of 3D graphene (3DG) (including chemical vapor deposition, hydrothermal methods, lithography, support assisted synthesis and chemical deposition, and direct electrochemical methods). The next section covers the key features of 3DG and its composites for use in electrochemical sensors. This section is subdivided into sections on the uses of 3D porous graphene, 3DG composites with metals and metal oxides, composites consisting of 3DG and organic polymers, and electrodes modified with 3DG, 3DGs decorated with carbon nanotubes, and others. The review concludes with a discussion of future perspectives and current challenges.
A schematic of the key characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) graphene
Keywords Porous carbon Three-dimensional material Quantum dots Lithography Hydrothermal synthesis Chemical vapor deposition 3D printing Electrochemical sensor Biosensor Conductive polymer Nanoparticles Notes Acknowledgements
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support provided by the Chemistry Department at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM).
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
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