Enzymatic biosensing by covalent conjugation of enzymes to 3D-networks of graphene nanosheets on arrays of vertically aligned gold nanorods: Application to voltammetric glucose sensing
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The authors demonstrate efficient direct electron transfer from the enzyme glucose oxidase to vertically aligned gold nanorods with a diameter of ~160 nm and a length of ~2 μm that are covalently linkage to a 3-dimensional network of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. The assembly can be prepared by a 2-step electrochemical procedure. This hybrid structure holds the enzyme in a favorable position while retaining its functionality that ultimately provides enhanced performance for enzymatic sensing of glucose without utilizing mediators. The nanorod assembly was applied to the voltammetric detection of glucose. Figures of merit include an electrochemical sensitivity of 12 μA·mM−1·cm−2 (obtained from cathodic peak current at a voltage of −0.45 V vs. Ag/AgCl), a 3 μM detection limit (at signal/noise = 3), and a wide linear range (0.01–7 mM). The hybrid nanostructure has a heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) of 2.9 s−1. The high electrochemical activity is attributed to the synergistic effect of a large active surface and an enhanced electron transfer efficiency due to covalent amide linkage.
KeywordsBiosensor Carbon nanostructures Reduced graphene oxide Nanosheets Glucose oxidase Electrochemistry Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV)
This work was supported by the Grant Program of Sharif University of Technology (No. G930305) and Iran National Science Foundation (INSF No. 95-S-48740).
Compliance of ethical standards
All utilized procedures were in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations of the Sharif University of Technology. The work has been approved by the ethical committee and all the patients signed an informed consent form.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts to declare.
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