Microchimica Acta

, 185:180 | Cite as

Lysozyme aptasensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanocomposite consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) and carbon quantum dots

  • Behzad Rezaei
  • Hamid Reza Jamei
  • Ali Asghar Ensafi
Original Paper


An aptamer-based method is described for electrochemical determination of lysozyme. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with a nanocomposite composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride), and carbon quantum dots. The composition of the nanocomposite (MWCNT/PDDA/CQD) warrants good electrical conductivity and a high surface-to-volume ratio. The lysozyme-binding aptamers were immobilized on the nanocomposite via covalent coupling between the amino groups of the aptamer and the carboxy groups of the nanocomposite. The modified electrode was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The use of this nanocomposite results in a considerable enhancement of the electrochemical signal and contributes to improving sensitivity. Hexacyanoferrate was used as an electrochemical probe to study the dependence of the peak current on lysozyme concentration. In the presence of lysozyme, the interaction of lysozyme with immobilized aptamer results in a decrease of the peak current, best measured at +0.15 V vs. Ag/AgCl. A plot of peak current changes versus the logarithm of the lysozyme concentration is linear in the 50 fmol L−1 to 10 nmol L−1 concentration range, with a 12.9 fmol L−1 detection limit (at an S/N ratio of 3). The method is highly reproducible, specific and sensitive, and the electrode has a rapid response. It was applied to the determination of lysozyme in egg white, serum, and urine.

Graphical abstract

Schematic of a nanocomposite composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA), and carbon quantum dots (CQDs) for use in a lysozyme aptasensor. The aptamer was immobilized on the surface, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was applied to block the surface. The changes of peak current for the electrochemical probe hexacyanoferrate (Fe(CN)63−/4-) in the presence and absence of lysozyme was traced.


Biosensor Differential pulse voltammetry Electrochemical aptasensor Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Nanocomposite 



The authors wish to thank the Center of Excellence in Sensor and Green Chemistry and Research Council of Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), and the Iranian Nanotechnology Initiative Council for their support.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2017_2656_MOESM1_ESM.docx (324 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 323 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Behzad Rezaei
    • 1
  • Hamid Reza Jamei
    • 1
  • Ali Asghar Ensafi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran

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