Microchimica Acta

, 185:179 | Cite as

A star-shaped polythiophene dendrimer coating for solid-phase microextraction of triazole agrochemicals

  • Mir Mahdi Abolghasemi
  • Rahim Habibiyan
  • Mehdi Jaymand
  • Marzieh Piryaei
Original Paper


A nanostructured star-shaped polythiophene dendrimer was prepared and used as a fiber coating for headspace solid phase microextraction of selected triazolic pesticides (tebuconazole, hexaconazole, penconazole, diniconazole, difenoconazole, triticonazole) from water samples. The dendrimer with its large surface area was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, UV–Vis spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. It was placed on a stainless steel wire for use in SPME. The experimental conditions for fiber coating, extraction, stirring rate, ionic strength, pH value, desorption temperature and time were optimized. Following thermal desorption, the pesticides were quantified by GC-MS. Under optimum conditions, the repeatability (RSD) for one fiber (for n = 3) ranges from 4.3 to 5.6%. The detection limits are between 8 and 12 pg mL−1. The method is fast, inexpensive (in terms of equipment), and the fiber has high thermal stability.

Graphical abstract

Schematic presentation of a nanostructured star-shaped polythiophene dendrimer for use in headspace solid phase microextraction of the triazolic pesticides (tebuconazole, hexaconazole, penconazole, diniconazole, difenoconazole, triticonazole). They were then quantified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.


Conductive polymer Dendrimer Solid phase-microextraction Triazol Fungicide Gas chromatography 


Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2017_2639_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.2 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 3.17 MB)


  1. 1.
    Hodge P (1993) Polymer science branches out. Nature 362:18–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kuzdzal SA, Monnig CA, Newkome GR, Moorefield CN (1994) Dendrimer electrokinetic capillary chromatography: unimolecular micellar behaviour of carboxylic acid terminated cascade macromolecules. J Chem Soc Chem Commun 18:2139–2140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Muijselaar P, Claessens H, Cramers C, Jansen J, Meijer E (1995) de Bra bander van den Berg, EMM, van der Wal, S. J High Resolut Chromatogr 18(2):121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Palmer CP, Tanaka N (1997) Selectivity of polymeric and polymer-supported pseudo-stationary phases in micellar electrokinetic chromatography. J Chromatogr A 792(1):105–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chao CH (2000) Dendritic polymers as bonded stationary phases in capillary electrochromatographyGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mathews B, Beezer A, Snowden M, Hardy M, Mitchell J (2000) Evaluation of novel dendrimer chiral stationary phases using HPLC. Chromatographia 53(3):147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Newkome GR, Yoo KS, Kabir A, Malik A (2001) Synthesis of benzyl-terminated dendrons for use in high-resolution capillary gas chromatography. Tetrahedron Lett 42(43):7537–7541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Massoumi B, Sorkhi-Shams N, Jaymand M, Mohammadi R (2015) Star-like nanostructured polyaniline and polyanisidine prepared from D-glucose: synthesis, characterization, and properties. RSC Adv 5(27):21197–21205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ak M, Toppare L (2009) Synthesis of star-shaped pyrrole and thiophene functionalized monomers and optoelectrochemical properties of corresponding copolymers. Mater Chem Phys 114(2):789–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Casado J, Pappenfus TM, Mann KR, Hernández V, López Navarrete JT (2004) Exploration of the electronic structure of dendrimerlike acetylene-bridged oligothiophenes by correlating Raman spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and theory. J Chem Phys 120(24):11874–11881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Massoumi B, Jaymand M (2016) Nanostructured star-shaped polythiophene with tannic acid core: synthesis, characterization, and its physicochemical properties. J Appl Polym Sci 133(23)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hatamzadeh M, Jaymand M (2014) Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene-graft-polythiophene via a combination of atom transfer radical polymerization and Grignard reaction. RSC Adv 4(32):16792–16802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Massoumi B, Jaymand M (2016) Conducting poly (vinyl chloride)-graft-polythiophene: synthesis, characterization, and materials properties. J Mater Sci Mater Electron 27(3):2267–2275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gholivand MB, Abolghasemi MM, Fattahpour P (2011) Polypyrrole/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite as a novel fiber coating for solid-phase microextraction. Anal Chim Acta 704(1):174–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gholivand MB, Abolghasemi MM, Fattahpour P (2012) Highly porous silica-polyaniline nanocomposite as a novel solid-phase microextraction fiber coating. J Sep Sci 35(1):101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gholivand MB, Abolghasemi MM (2012) Inside needle capillary adsorption trap device for headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction based on polyaniline/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite. J Sep Sci 35(5–6):695–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abolghasemi MM, Karimi B, Yousefi V (2013) Periodic mesoporous organosilica with ionic liquid framework as a novel fiber coating for headspace solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Anal Chim Acta 804:280–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gholivand MB, Piryaei M, Abolghasemi MM, Maassoumi SM (2013) Rapid analysis of volatile components from Teucrium polium L. by Nanoporous silica-polyaniline solid phase microextraction fibre. Phytochem Anal 24(1):69–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Piryaei M, Abolghasemi MM, Nazemiyeh H (2015) Rapid analysis of Achillea tenuifolia Lam essential oils by polythiophene/hexagonally ordered silica nanocomposite coating as a solid-phase microextraction fibre. Nat Prod Res 29(19):1789–1792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Piryaei M, Abolghasemi MM, Nazemiyeh H (2015) Fast determination of Ziziphora tenuior L. essential oil by inorganic–organic hybrid material based on ZnO nanoparticles anchored to a composite made from polythiophene and hexagonally ordered silica. Nat Prod Res 29(9):833–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ahmad W, Al-Sibaai A, Bashammakh A, Alwael H, El-Shahawi M (2015) Recent advances in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for pesticide analysis. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 72:181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Farajzadeh MA, Djozan D, Mogaddam M, Bamorowat M (2011) Extraction and preconcentration technique for triazole pesticides from cow milk using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by GC-FID and GC-MS determinations. J Sep Sci 34(11):1309–1316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Farajzadeh MA, Djozan D, Khorram P (2012) Development of a new dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction method in a narrow-bore tube for preconcentration of triazole pesticides from aqueous samples. Anal Chim Acta 713:70–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bordagaray A, Garcia-Arrona R, Millán E (2011) Optimization of solid-phase microextraction procedure coupled to GC-ECD for triazole fungicides determination in juice samples. Food Anal Methods 4(3):293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Crofton K (1996) A structure-activity relationship for the neurotoxicity of triazole fungicides. Toxicol Lett 84(3):155–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li J, Dong F, Xu J, Liu X, Li Y, Shan W, Zheng Y (2011) Enantioselective determination of triazole fungicide simeconazole in vegetables, fruits, and cereals using modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) coupled to gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 702(1):127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Abolghasemi MM, Hassani S, Bamorowat M (2016) Efficient solid-phase microextraction of triazole pesticides from natural water samples using a Nafion-loaded trimethylsilane-modified mesoporous silica coating of type SBA-15. Microchim Acta 183(2):889–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Farajzadeh MA, Djozan D, Nouri N, Bamorowat M, Shalamzari MS (2010) Coupling stir bar sorptive extraction-dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for preconcentration of triazole pesticides from aqueous samples followed by GC-FID and GC-MS determinations. J Sep Sci 33(12):1816–1828CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MaraghehMaraghehIran
  2. 2.Immunology Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

Personalised recommendations