Table 3 The 10-year cumulative incidence rates and 95% CI for the development of severe diabetic retinopathy by LTPA as well as by LTPA intensity, duration and frequency

From: Frequent physical activity is associated with reduced risk of severe diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes

 LTPAIntensityFrequencyDuration
Low*15.6% (12.6,18.5) N = 482, 86 events13.3% (9.9,16.7) N = 331,52 events15.8% (12.3, 19.2) N = 328, 62 events14.1% (9.4,18.5) N = 187, 30 events
Moderate*13.7% (11.2,15.6) N = 833, 132 events14.1% (11.9,16.3) N = 857,137 events15.8% (12.6, 18.9) N = 420, 74 events14.0% (11.8,16.2) N = 820, 128 events
High*13.1% (9.4,17.1) N = 297, 43 events15.0% (11.8,18.1) N = 388, 67 events12.7% (10.6,14.7) N = 847,123 events14.7% (11.8,17.5) N = 491, 84 events
p valueP = 0.12p = 0.64p = 0.024p = 0.84
  1. LTPA leisure-time physical activity
  2. *LTPA: Low < 10 METh/week; moderate 10–40 METh/week and high > 40 METh/week; intensity: low (no self-reported subjective shortness of breath and no sweating); moderate (a moderate degree of self-reported subjective shortness of breath and sweating); and high (a high degree of subjective shortness of breath and sweating). Duration: low ≤ 30, moderate 31–60 and high > 60 min/session. Frequency: low < 1, moderate 1–2 and high > 2 sessions/week