Table 2 Baseline clinical characteristics regarding development of severe diabetic retinopathy

From: Frequent physical activity is associated with reduced risk of severe diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes

 No retinopathyRetinopathyp value
N1351261 
Sex (men %)44.348.10.261
Age (years)37.3 ± 11.935.6 ± 11.70.036
Duration of diabetes (years)18.7 ± 12.019.8 ± 9.80.160
BMI (kg/m2)25.1 ± 3.625.5 ± 3.50.048
WHR men0.90 ± 0.070.90 ± 0.070.755
WHR women0.82 ± 0.060.82 ± 0.060.211
SBP (mmHg)131 ± 16134 ± 170.003
DBP (mmHg)78 ± 980 ± 100.001
HbA1c (%)8.0 ± 1.29.1 ± 1.6< 0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)64 ± 1476 ± 17< 0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.75 ± 0.844.94 ± 0.890.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.49 ± 0.401.37 ± 0.40< 0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.80 ± 0.772.98 ± 0.790.001
Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.92 (0.71–1.28)1.04 (0.82–1.53)< 0.001
AHT (%)20.831.3< 0.001
Beta-blockers (%)5.35.40.944
Ever-smokers (%)41.549.20.023
eGFR99 ± 2199 ± 210.941
  1. Data are mean ± SD, median (IQR) or percentages
  2. WHR Waist-to-hip ratio; AHT antihypertensive medication; SBP systolic blood pressure; DBP diastolic blood pressure; LTPA leisure-time physical activity