Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics stratified by LTPA

From: Frequent physical activity is associated with reduced risk of severe diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes

 Physically inactiveModerately activeActivep value
N482833297 
Sex (men %)50.241.146.10.005
Age (years)36.9 ± 12.337.2 ± 11.736.7 ± 11.80.755
Duration of diabetes (years)18.6 ± 11.819.1 ± 11.619.1 ± 11.70.722
BMI (kg/m2)25.4 ± 3.825.1 ± 3.525.0 ± 3.10.145
WHR men0.91 ± 0.070.90 ± 0.070.89 ± 0.060.013
WHR women0.83 ± 0.060.81 ± 0.060.81 ± 0.070.021
SBP (mmHg)132 ± 16131 ± 16131 ± 160.766
DBP (mmHg)79 ± 1079 ± 978 ± 90.850
HbA1c (%)8.4 ± 1.48.1 ± 1.38.2 ± 1.40.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol)68 ± 1565 ± 1566 ± 160.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.80 ± 0.834.78 ± 0.864.75 ± 0.890.766
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.42 ± 0.401.49 ± 0.391.47 ± 0.420.014
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.86 ± 0.762.83 ± 0.782.78 ± 0.790.463
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.02 (0.76–1.46)0.92 (0.71–1.26)0.93 (0.71–1.32)0.001
AHT (%)25.320.822.60.173
Beta-blockers (%)6.35.04.70.529
Ever-smokers (%)51.439.737.8< 0.001
  1. Data are mean ± SD, median (IQR) or percentages
  2. p values denote comparisons over three groups
  3. WHR Waist-to-hip ratio; AHT antihypertensive medication; SBP systolic blood pressure; DBP diastolic blood pressure; LTPA leisure-time physical activity