Sex differences in the association of psychological status with measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adults with type 2 diabetes
To assess the association of psychological variables on leisure-time physical activity and sedentary time in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).
In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated 163 patients with T2D, consecutively recruited at the Diabetes Centre of the Verona General Hospital. Scores on depression and anxiety symptoms, psychosocial factors (including self-efficacy, perceived interference, perceived severity, social support, misguided support behaviour, spouse’s positive behaviour), physical activity and time spent sitting were ascertained using questionnaires responses to the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire, International Physical Activity Questionnaire.
Physical activity was significantly associated with higher social support in women and with increased self-efficacy in men. Sedentary time was significantly associated with higher perceived interference, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and with reduced diabetes self-efficacy in women, while it was associated solely with anxiety in men. Depressive symptoms and self-efficacy in women and anxiety symptoms in men were independent predictors of sedentary time when entered in a multivariable regression model also including age, BMI, haemoglobin A1c, diabetes duration, perceived interference and self-efficacy as covariates.
Lower self-efficacy and higher symptoms of depression were closely associated with increased sedentary time in women, but not in men, with T2D. It is possible that individualized behavioural interventions designed to reduce depressive symptoms and to improve diabetes self-efficacy would ultimately reduce sedentary behaviours, particularly in women with T2D.
KeywordsDiabetes Depression Anxiety Physical activity Sedentary behaviour
This study was supported by Fondazione Diabete Ricerca (Fo.Di.Ri., Rome, Italy). The funder had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, manuscript preparation and/or publication decision. The support of the administrative and clinical personnel of the Verona Diabetes Center (University and General Hospital of Verona, Verona, Italy) is gratefully acknowledged.
LI, MD and ELB researched and analysed data and wrote the manuscript. LS analysed data. CN and VC provided care for study patients. AN, ENB and PM edited the manuscript and provided substantial contribution to the overall discussion. LI, MD and ELB are the guarantors of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hospital Trust of Verona.
All participants gave written informed consent upon recruitment.
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