Acta Diabetologica

, Volume 55, Issue 6, pp 613–625 | Cite as

Screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Katherine T. Li
  • Shilpa Naik
  • Mallika Alexander
  • Jyoti S. Mathad
Original Article



Although diabetes is rapidly increasing in India, there is no national consensus on best practices for screening, diagnosis, and management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The goal of this study was to systematically review the literature for studies reporting the prevalence and screening and diagnostic methods for gestational diabetes in India.


We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and POPLINE for studies on screening for GDM in India. We included English-language full reports and conference abstracts of cross-sectional studies, prospective, and retrospective cohorts that reported the screening method and prevalence of GDM. We performed descriptive analysis on all studies and meta-analysis, meta-regression, and subgroup meta-analysis on studies with medium or low risk of bias.


We included 64 studies reporting 90 prevalence estimates. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0 to 41.9%. Subset meta-analyses showed that the IADPSG diagnostic criteria found significantly more GDM cases (prevalence = 19.19% [15.5, 23.6], p < 0.05) than the WHO 1999 criteria (10.13% [8.17, 12.50]) and DIPSI criteria (7.37% [5.2, 10.16]). Studies that compared the IADPSG and WHO 1999 criteria showed poor positive agreement (33–79%). Studies specifying time of GDM diagnosis showed that patients (11–60%) develop GDM as early as the first trimester, but many GDM cases (16–40%) are missed if screened only at first visit.


In India, prevalence estimates of GDM vary substantially by diagnostic criteria. When evaluating screening and diagnostic criteria for GDM, providers should consider their patients’ needs and correlate screening criteria with pregnancy outcomes.


Gestational diabetes Pregnancy India Screening 



We would like to thank Weill Cornell Medicine librarians Kevin J. Pain and Becky B. Nelson for their assistance with searching the literature; Elizabeth Mauer for her assistance in conducting meta-analysis; and Dr. Amita Gupta for her input on writing.

Author’s contributions

JSM and KL motivated and conceived of the study. KL and SN searched for literature and analyzed results. KL, MA, and JSM interpreted the results. KL wrote the article. MA and JSM critically reviewed the article. All authors reviewed and edited the article.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the author declares that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics approval

As this was a review study, no ethics approval was required.

Informed consent

As this was a review study, no informed consent was required.

Consent for publication

All authors provided consent for publication.

Supplementary material

592_2018_1131_MOESM1_ESM.docx (323 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 323 kb)


  1. 1.
    IDF (2015) IDF Diabetes Atlas 2015.
  2. 2.
    WHO (2013) Diagnostic criteria and classification of hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Metzger BE, Lowe LP, Dyer AR, HAPO study cooperative research group (2008) Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med 358:1991–2002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Veerasamy S, Kapur A, Balaji V, Divakar H (2015) A perspective on testing for gestational diabetes mellitus. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 19(4):529–532PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gupta Y, Kalra B (2016) Screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. JPMA 66(9 Suppl 1):S19–S21Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mohan V, Usha S, Uma R (2015) Screening for gestational diabetes in India: where do we stand? J Postgrad Med 61(3):151–154PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rani PR, Begum J (2016) Screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus, where do we stand. J Clin Diagn Res 10(4):QE01–QE04PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Seshiah V (2010) Diabetes in pregnancy study G. Fifth national conference of diabetes in pregnancy study group, India. J Assoc Physicians India 58:329–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mahalakshmi MM, Bhavadharini B, Maheswari K et al (2016) Current practices in the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes mellitus in India (WINGS-5). Indian J Endocrinol Metab 20(3):364–368PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Babu GR, Tejaswi B, Kalavathi M et al (2015) Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in bangalore. India. J Pub Health Res 4(1):448Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Seshiah V, Balaji V, Balaji MS, Sanjeevi CB, Green A (2004) Gestational diabetes mellitus in India. J Assoc Physicians India 52:707–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vanlalhruaii RS, Prasad L, Singh NN, Singh TP (2013) Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and its correlation with blood pressure in Manipuri women. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 17(6):957–961PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gopalakrishnan V, Singh R, Pradeep Y et al (2015) Evaluation of the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in North Indians using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study groups (IADPSG) criteria. J Postgrad Med 61(3):155–158PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hoy D, Brooks P, Woolf A et al (2012) Assessing risk of bias in prevalence studies: modification of an existing tool and evidence of interrater agreement. J Clin Epidemiol 65(9):934–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Macaulay S, Dunger DB, Norris SA (2014) Gestational diabetes mellitus in Africa: a systematic review. PLoS ONE 9(6):e97871PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anjana RM, Deepa M, Pradeepa R et al (2017) Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR–INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 5(8):585–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Balaji V, Madhuri BS, Paneerselvam A, Arthi T, Seshiah V (2012) Comparison of venous plasma glucose and capillary whole blood glucose in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus: a community-based study. Diabetes Technol Ther 14(2):131–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bhavadharini B, Mahalakshmi MM, Anjana RM et al (2016) Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in urban and rural Tamil Nadu using IADPSG and WHO 1999 criteria (WINGS 6). Clin Diabetes Endocrinol 2(1):8PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goswami Mahanta T, Deuri A, Mahanta BN et al (2014) Maternal and foetal outcome of gestational diabetes mellitus in a rural block of Assam, India. Clin Epidemiol Global Health 2(1):9–15Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hill JC, Krishnaveni GV, Annamma I, Leary SD, Fall CH (2005) Glucose tolerance in pregnancy in South India: relationships to neonatal anthropometry. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 84(2):159–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jain R, Davey S, Davey A, Raghav SK, Singh JV (2016) Can the management of blood sugar levels in gestational diabetes mellitus cases be an indicator of maternal and fetal outcomes? The results of a prospective cohort study from India. J Family Commun Med 23(2):94–99Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kulkarni SR, Fall CH, Joshi NV et al (2007) Determinants of incident hyperglycemia 6 years after delivery in young rural Indian mothers: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (PMNS). Diabetes Care 30(10):2542–2547PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Madhavan A, Beena Kumari R, Sanal MG (2008) A pilot study on the usefulness of body mass index and waist hip ratio as a predictive tool for gestational diabetes in Asian Indians. Gynecol Endocrinol 24(12):701–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mathai M, Thomas TJ, Kuruvila S, Jairaj P (1994) Random plasma glucose and the glucose challenge test in pregnancy. Natl Med J India 7(4):160–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nayak PK, Mitra S, Sahoo JP, Daniel M, Mathew A, Padma A (2013) Feto-maternal outcomes in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus according to the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) diagnostic criteria. Diabetes Metab Syndr 7(4):206–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Neelakandan R, Sethu PS (2014) Early universal screening for gestational diabetes mellitus. J Clin Diagn Res 8(4):OC12–OC14PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rajput R, Yogesh Y, Rajput M, Nanda S (2012) Utility of HbA1c for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 98(1):104–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Shyamala P, Vijay V, Viswanathan M (1994) Prevalence of diabetes in pregnant women—a study from Southern India. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 25(1):71–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Clementina M, Sasikala R, Vijay V (1998) Foetal outcome in gestational diabetes in south Indians. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 41(3):185–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Seshiah V, Balaji V, Balaji MS et al (2008) Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in South India (Tamil Nadu)—a community based study. J Assoc Physicians India 56(MAY):329–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Seshiah V, Balaji V, Shah SN et al (2012) Diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in the community. J Assoc Physicians India 60:15–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Seshiah V, Balaji V, Balaji MS et al (2007) Gestational diabetes mellitus manifests in all trimesters of pregnancy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 77(3):482–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Soumya S, Rohilla M, Chopra S et al (2015) HbA1c: a useful screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Technol Ther 17(12):899–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tripathi R, Tolia N, Gupta VK, Mala YM, Ramji S, Tyagi S (2012) Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective study in a tertiary care institution of North India. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 38(2):351–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Acharya N, Inamdar A, Inamdar S (2011) Role of O’Sullivan’s test in screening of pregnant women for gestational diabetes in rural area. J SAFOG 3(2):86–89Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Anjalakshi C, Balaji V, Balaji MS, Seshiah V (2007) A prospective study comparing insulin and glibenclamide in gestational diabetes mellitus in Asian Indian women. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 76(3):474–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Anjalakshi C, Balaji V, Balaji MS, Ashalata S, Suganthi S, Arthi T et al (2009) A single test procedure to diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus. Acta Diabetol 46(1):51–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Arora GP, Thaman RG, Prasad RB et al (2015) Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes in Punjab, North India: results from a population screening program. Eur J Endocrinol 173(2):257–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dahiya K, Sahu J (2014) Single step test for diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus. J SAFOG. 6(2):88–92Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ghosh S, Ghosh K (2013) Maternal and neonatal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus. J Indian Med Assoc 111(5):330–1, 336Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Grewal E, Kansara S, Kachhawa G et al (2012) Prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation by using first-trimester insulin sensitivity indices in Asian Indian subjects. Metabolism 61(5):715–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kalra P, Kachhwaha CP, Singh HV (2013) Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and its outcome in western Rajasthan. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 17(4):677–680PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mohan MA, Chandrakumar A (2016) Evaluation of prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes in a tertiary care hospital in Kerala. Diabetes Metab Syndr 10(2):68–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mohan V, Mahalakshmi MM, Bhavadharini B et al (2014) Comparison of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by oral glucose tolerance tests done in the non-fasting (random) and fasting states. Acta Diabetol 51(6):1007–1013PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mounika K, Sarraswathi K, Kalavathy V (2015) Study of 100 cases of gestational diabetes in Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital (SBMCH), Tamil Nadu, India. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 6(5):592–596Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nilofer AR, Raju VS, Dakshayini BR, Zaki SA (2012) Screening in high-risk group of gestational diabetes mellitus with its maternal and fetal outcomes. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 16(Suppl 1):S74–S78PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rajagopalan M, Sooriyakala T, Sreekumar R (2013) GDM-is screening and interventional strategies worthwhile? BJOG Int J Obstet Gynaecol 120:88Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ram U, Gopal J, Mahadevan S (2009) An evaluation of the characteristics of gestational diabetes in an urban Indian setting. Int J Gynecol Obstet 107:S315Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sagili H, Kamalanathan S, Sahoo J et al (2015) Comparison of different criteria for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 19(6):824–828PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sahariah SA, Potdar RD, Gandhi M et al (2016) A daily snack containing leafy green vegetables, fruit, and milk before and during pregnancy prevents gestational diabetes in a randomized, controlled trial in Mumbai, India. J Nutr 146(7):1453S–1460SPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Satodiya M, Takkar N, Goel P, Kaur J (2016) Comparison of one-step versus two-step screening for diagnosis of GDM in Indian population: a randomized controlled trial. J Obstet Gynecol India 67(3):1–6Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sharma K, Wahi P, Gupta A et al (2013) Single glucose challenge test procedure for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus: a Jammu cohort study. J Assoc Physicians India 61(8):558–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Somani B, Arora M, Bhatia K, Arora D, Banerjee M (2012) A comparative study of the different diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus and its incidence. Med J Armed Forces India 68(1):6–11PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Surapaneni T, Nikhat I, Nirmalan PK (2013) Diagnostic effectiveness of 75 g oral glucose tolerance test for gestational diabetes in India based on the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups guidelines. Obstet Med 6(3):125–128PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Uma R, Bhavadharini B, Ranjani H et al (2017) Pregnancy outcome of gestational diabetes mellitus using a structured model of care: WINGS project (WINGS-10). J Obstet Gynaecol Res 43(3):468–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Veeraswamy S, Divakar H, Gupte S, Datta M, Kapur A, Vijayam B (2016) Need for testing glucose tolerance in the early weeks of pregnancy. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 20(1):43–46PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Verma A, Singh B, Mengi V (2008) Gestational diabetes in rural women of jammu. Indian J Commun Med 33(1):54–55Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wahi P, Dogra V, Jandial K, Bhagat R et al (2011) Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and its outcomes in Jammu region. J Assoc Physicians India 59:227–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Balaji V, Balaji M, Anjalakshi C, Cynthia A, Arthi T, Seshiah V (2011) Diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in Asian-Indian women. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 15(3):187–190PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Behuria S (2009) Maternal and foetal outcome in gestational diabetes mellitus-a prospective study. Int J Gynecol Obstet 107:S124Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bhatt AA, Dhore PB, Purandare VB, Sayyad MG, Mandal MK, Unnikrishnan AG (2015) Gestational diabetes mellitus in rural population of Western India—results of a community survey. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 19(4):507–510PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bhattacharya SM (2002) Glucose screening test results in first and early third trimester of pregnancy: is there any correlation? J Obstet Gynaecol Res 28(6):304–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bhattacharya SM (2004) Fasting or two-hour postprandial plasma glucose levels in early months of pregnancy as screening tools for gestational diabetes mellitus developing in later months of pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 30(4):333–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Divakar H, Kumar N, Manyonda I (2009) Diagnostic criteria influence prevalence rates for gestational diabetes: implications for interventions in an Indian pregnant population. Int J Gynecol Obstet 107:S439Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jali MV, Desai BR, Gowda S, Kambar S, Jali SM (2011) A hospital based study of prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in an urban population of India. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 15(11):1306–1310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kragelund Nielsen K, Damm P, Kapur A et al (2016) Risk factors for hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0151311PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mahalakshmi MM, Bhavadharini B, Maheswari K et al (2016) Comparison of maternal and fetal outcomes among Asian Indian pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus: a situational analysis study (WINGS-3). Indian J Endocrinol Metab 20(4):491–496PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Maheshwari JR, Mataliya MV (1989) A random plasma glucose method for screening for gestational diabetes. J Postgrad Med 35(1):36–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Malhotra S, Hazarika PC, Dhall K (1988) A screening programme for gestational diabetes. Indian J Med Res 87:252–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mehta P, Patnaik J (2015) A study on prevalence of gestational diabetes and its feto-maternal outcome in a medical college of Odisha. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1:96Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Nilakhe SD, Ramavataram DVSS, Sambahre V, Nandeshwar AS (2016) Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus: study based on IADPSG and recent who diagnostic criteria with special reference to Hb A1c. Indian J 31(1 Supplement 1):S84Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rajput M, Bairwa M, Rajput R (2014) Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in rural Haryana: a community-based study. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 18(3):350–354PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sahu L, Satyakala R, Rani R (2009) Comparison of the American Diabetes Association and World Health Organization criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus and the outcomes of pregnancy. Obstet Med 2(4):149–153PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sawant AP, Naik SS, Nagarkar VD, Shinde AV (2011) Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in sai shirdi rural area of Maharashtra state. Biomed Res 22(2):203–206Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Swami SR, Mehetre R, Shivane V, Bandgar TR, Menon PS, Shah NS (2008) Prevalence of carbohydrate intolerance of varying degrees in pregnant females in Western India (Maharashtra)—a hospital-based study. J Indian Med Assoc 106(11):712–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Zargar AH, Sheikh MI, Bashir MI, Masoodi SR et al (2004) Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in Kashmiri women from the Indian subcontinent. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 66(2):139–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nayak PK, Mitra S, Sahoo J, Kamalnathan S (2014) Comparison of the world health organization and the international association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups criteria in diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in South Indians. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 18(3):433–434PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Swami SR, Mehetre R, Shivane V, Bandgar TR, Menon PS, Shah NS (2008) Prevalence of carbohydrate intolerance of varying degrees in pregnant females in western India (Maharashtra)—a hospital-based study. J Indian Med Assoc 106(11):712–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Farrar D, Duley L, Dowswell T, Lawlor DA (2017) Different strategies for diagnosing gestational diabetes to improve maternal and infant health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017(8):CD007122Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wendland EM, Torloni MR, Falavigna M et al (2012) Gestational diabetes and pregnancy outcomes—a systematic review of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) diagnostic criteria. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 12(1):23PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wu ET, Nien FJ, Kuo CH et al (2016) Diagnosis of more gestational diabetes lead to better pregnancy outcomes: comparing the international association of the diabetes and pregnancy study group criteria, and the carpenter and coustan criteria. J Diabetes Investig 7:121–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Duran A, Sáenz S, Torrejón MJ, Bordiú E, Valle L, Galindo M (2014) Introduction of IADPSG criteria for the screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus results in improved pregnancy outcomes at a lower cost in a large cohort of pregnant women: the St.Carlos Gestational Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 37(9):2442–2450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mostafa SA, Davies MJ, Webb DR, Srinivasan BT, Gray LJ, Khunti K (2012) Independent effect of ethnicity on glycemia in South Asians and White Europeans. Diabetes Care 35(8):1746–1748PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Shang M, Lin L (2014) IADPSG criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus and predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. J Perinatol 34(2):100–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jenum AK, Morkrid K, Sletner L et al (2012) Impact of ethnicity on gestational diabetes identified with the WHO and the modified International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria: a population-based cohort study.[Erratum appears in Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Mar; 166(3):561 Note: Vange, Siri [corrected to Vangen, Siri]]. Eur 166(2):317–324Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Seshlah V, Sahay BK, Das AK et al (2009) Gestational diabetes mellitus—Indian guidelines. J Indian Med Assoc 107(11):799–806Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Reich D, Thangaraj K, Patterson N, Price AL, Singh L (2009) Reconstructing Indian population history. Nature 461(7263):489–494PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Basu A, Sarkar-Roy N, Majumder PP (2016) Genomic reconstruction of the history of extant populations of India reveals five distinct ancestral components and a complex structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci 113(6):1594–1599PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Shetty PS (2002) Nutrition transition in India. Pub Health Nutr 5(1a):175–182Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Yadav K, Krishnan A (2008) Changing patterns of diet, physical activity and obesity among urban, rural and slum populations in north India. Obes Rev 9(5):400–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Daniel CR, Prabhakaran D, Kapur K et al (2011) A cross-sectional investigation of regional patterns of diet and cardio-metabolic risk in India. Nutr J 10:12PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Savitz DA, Janevic TM, Engel SM, Kaufman JS, Herring AH (2008) Ethnicity and gestational diabetes in New York City, 1995–2003. BJOG Int J Obstet Gynaecol 115(8):969–978Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Beischer NA, Oats JN, Henry OA, Sheedy MT, Walstab JE (1991) Incidence and severity of gestational diabetes mellitus according to country of birth in women living in Australia. Diabetes 40(Suppl 2):35–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Chu SY, Abe K, Hall LR, Kim SY, Njoroge T, Qin C (2009) Gestational diabetes mellitus: all Asians are not alike. Prev Med 49(2–3):265–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    American Diabetes Association (2003) Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 26(suppl 1):s5–s20Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Carpenter MW, Coustan DR (1982) Criteria for screening tests for gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 144:768–773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    IADPSG Consensus Panel (2010) International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Care 33(3):676–682Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    National Diabetes Data Group (1979) Classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance. Diabetes 28:1039–1057Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    O’Sullivan JB, Mahan CM (1964) Criteria for the oral glucose tolerance test in pregnancy. Diabetes 13:278–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    WHO (1999) Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Report of a WHO consultation, GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katherine T. Li
    • 1
  • Shilpa Naik
    • 2
  • Mallika Alexander
    • 3
  • Jyoti S. Mathad
    • 4
  1. 1.Weill Cornell Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of OB-GYNByramjee Jeejeebhoy Government Medical CollegePuneIndia
  3. 3.Johns Hopkins University Clinical Trials UnitByramjee Jeejeebhoy Government Medical CollegePuneIndia
  4. 4.Departments of Medicine and OB-GYNWeill Cornell MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations