Computational simulation study on ilio-sacral screw fixations for pelvic ring injuries and implications in Asian sacrum
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Despite a high possibility of technique-related complications, ilio-sacral (IS) screw fixation is the mainstay of operative management in posterior pelvic ring injuries. We aimed to make IS screw trajectory with fully intraosseous path that was optimal and consistent, and confirm the possibility of transiliac–transsacral (TITS) screw fixation in Asian sacrum.
Eighty-two cadaveric sacra (42 males and 40 females) were enrolled and underwent continuous 1.0-mm slice computed tomography (CT) scans. CT images were imported into Mimics® software to reconstruct three-dimensional model of the pelvis. To simulate IS screws, we inserted 7.0-mm-sized TITS cylinder for first (S1) and second (S2) sacral segment and 7.0-mm oblique cylinder for S1. TITS cylinder could not be inserted into S1 of 14 models (sacral variation models) but could be inserted into the S2 of all models. The actual length of virtual IS screws was measured, and anatomic features of safe zone (SZS2) including the area, horizontal distance (HDS2), and vertical distance (VDS2) were evaluated by the possibility of TITS screw fixation in the S1.
When the oblique cylinder was directed toward the opposite upper corner of S1 at the level of the first foramen, there was no cortical violation regardless of sacral variation. The average length of TITS cylinder was 152.3 mm (range 127.9–178.2 mm) in S1 and 136.0 mm (range 97.8–164.1 mm) in S2, and for oblique cylinder it was 99.2 mm (range 82.4–132.2 mm). The average VDS2, HDS2, and the area of SZS2 were 15.5 mm (range 8.7–24.4 mm), 18.3 mm (range 12.7–26.6 mm), and 221.1 mm2 (range 91.1–386.7 mm2), respectively. The VDS2 and SZS2 of sacral variation were significantly higher than those of normal (both p = 0.001).
Considering the high variability of the S1, it is better to direct the IS screw trajectory toward the opposite upper corner of the S1 at the level of first sacral foramen. If a TITS screw is needed, the transverse fixation for the S2 could be performed alternatively due to its sufficient osseous site even in Asian sacrum.
KeywordsPelvic ring injury Ilio-sacral screw fixation Safe zone Transiliac–transsacral screw fixation Three-dimensional modeling
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article involved human participants. However, because our study design used approved digital data, this study did not need the institutional review board approval.
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